|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009)|
|Phonemic representation||ħ / χ / x|
|Position in alphabet||8|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
Ḥet or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of many Semitic abjads (alphabets), including Phoenician , Syriac ܚ, Hebrew ח, Arabic ح. In Berber (a non-Semitic language) it is rendered as ⵃ or Ḥ. Heth is usually represented in the Latin alphabet by ḥ.
Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal /ħ/, or velar /x/ (the two Proto-Semitic phonemes having merged in Canaanite). In Arabic, two corresponding letters were created for both phonemic sounds: unmodified ḥāʾ ح represents /ħ/, while ḫāʾ خ represents /x/.
The Phoenician letter derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph for "courtyard" and gave rise to the Greek Eta Η, Etruscan 𐌇, Latin H and Cyrillic И. While H is a consonant in the Latin alphabet, the Greek and Cyrillic equivalents represent vowel sounds.
The letter shape ultimately goes back to a hieroglyph for "courtyard",
(possibly named ḥasir in the Middle Bronze Age alphabets, while the name goes rather back to ḫayt, the name reconstructed for a letter derived from a hieroglyph for "thread",
. In Arabic "thread" is خيط xajtˤ or xeːtˤ
|Various Print Fonts||Cursive
Hebrew spelling: חֵית
In Modern Israeli Hebrew, the letter Ḥet usually has the sound value of a voiceless uvular fricative (/χ/), as in Ashkenazi Hebrew. In other phonologies, it is pronounced as a voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/) and is still among Mizrahim (especially among the older generation and popular Mizrahi singers), in accordance with oriental Jewish traditions.
The ability to pronounce the Arabic letter ḥāʾ (ح) correctly as a voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ is often used as a shibboleth to distinguish Arabic-speakers from non-Arabic-speakers; in particular, pronunciation of the letter as /x/ is seen as a hallmark of Ashkenazi Jews and Greeks.
Ḥet is one of the few Hebrew consonants that can take a vowel at the end of a word. This occurs when patach gnuva comes under the Ḥet at the end of the word. The combination is then pronounced /-aχ/ rather than /-χa/. For example: פתוח (/ˌpaˈtuaχ/), and תפוח (/ˌtaˈpuaχ/).
Ḥet, along with Aleph, Ayin, Resh, and He, cannot receive a dagesh. As pharyngeal fricatives are difficult for most English speakers to pronounce, loanwords are usually Anglicized to have /h/. Thus challah (חלה), pronounced by native Hebrew speakers as /χala/ or /ħala/ is pronounced /halə/ by most English speakers, who cannot often perceive the difference between [h] and [ħ].
In gematria, Ḥet represents the number eight.
The letter is named حاء ḥāʾ and is the sixth letter of the alphabet. Its shape varies depending on its position in the word:
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
this letter in pre-punctuation modification that was introduced after Islam, was used to denote two letters, the second letter being خḪāʾ
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER HET||ARABIC LETTER HAH||SYRIAC LETTER HETH||SAMARITAN LETTER IT|
|UTF-8||215 151||D7 97||216 173||D8 AD||220 154||DC 9A||224 160 135||E0 A0 87|
|Numeric character reference||ח||ח||ح||ح||ܚ||ܚ||ࠇ||ࠇ|
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER HOTA||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER HETH||PHOENICIAN LETTER HET|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 136||F0 90 8E 88||240 144 161 135||F0 90 A1 87||240 144 164 135||F0 90 A4 87|
|UTF-16||55296 57224||D800 DF88||55298 56391||D802 DC47||55298 56583||D802 DD07|
|Numeric character reference||𐎈||𐎈||𐡇||𐡇||𐤇||𐤇|
- Ħ, ħ : Latin letter H with stroke
- Bouchentouf, Amine (2006). Arabic for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Inc. p. 15.