'Adud al-Dawla

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Adud al-Dawla
Adud al-DawlaOtherFirstCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Coin of Adud al-Dawla
Amir of Fars
Reign 949 - 983
Predecessor Imad al-Dawla
Successor Sharaf al-Dawla
Amir of Kerman
Reign 967 - 983
Predecessor Mu'izz al-Dawla
Successor Sharaf al-Dawla
Amir of Iraq
Reign 978 - 983
Predecessor Izz al-Dawla
Successor Samsam al-Dawla
Father Rukn al-Dawla
Born September 24, 936
Isfahan, Iran
Died March 26, 983 (aged 53)
Baghdad (present day Iraq)
Burial Najaf (present day Iraq)
Religion Shia Islam

Fana Khusraw (Persian: فنا خسرو‎), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (Arabic: عضد الدولة‎, "Pillar of the [Abbasid] Dynasty") (September 24, 936  – March 26, 983) was king of the Buyid dynasty from 949 to 983. He is widely regarded as the greatest monarch of the dynasty,[1] and one of the most powerful Muslim rulers during his late reign.[1]

The son of Rukn al-Dawla, Fana Khusraw was given the title of Adud al-Dawla by the Abbasid caliph in 948 when he was made emir of Fars after the death of his childless uncle Imad al-Dawla, after which Rukn al-Dawla became the senior emir of the Buyids. In 974 Adud al-Dawla was sent by his father to save his cousin Izz al-Dawla from a rebellion. After defeating the rebel forces, he claimed the emirate of Iraq for himself, and forced his cousin to abdicate. His father, however, became angered by this decision and restored Izz al-Dawla. After the death of Adud al-Dawla's father, his cousin rebelled against him, but was defeated. Adud al-Dawla became afterwards the sole ruler of the Buyid dynasty and assumed the title Shahanshah (King of Kings).[2][3]

When Adud al-Dawla became emir of Iraq, the capital of the city, Baghdad was suffering from violence and instability owing to sectarian conflict. In order to bring peace and stability to the city, he ordered the banning of public demonstrations and polemics. At the same time, he patronized a number of Shi'a scholars such as al-Mufid, and he sponsored the renovation of a number of important Shi'a shrines.

In addition, 'Adud al-Dawla is credited with sponsoring and patronizing other scientific projects during his time. An observatory was built by his orders in Isfahan where Azophi worked. Al-Muqaddasi also reports that he ordered the construction of a great dam between Shiraz and Estakhr in 960. The dam irrigated some 300 villages in Fars province and became known as Band-e Amir (port of the Amir). Among his other major constructions was the digging of the Haffar channel, that joined the Karun river to the Arvand Rud river (the confluence of Tigris and Euphrates). The port of Khorramshahr was built on the Haffar, at its joining point with the Arvand Rud.

Early life

Fanna Khusraw was born at Isfahan on September 24, 936,[1] he was the son of Rukn al-Dawla, who was the brother of Imad al-Dawla and Mu'izz al-Dawla. According to Ibn Isfandiyar, Fanna Khusraw's mother was the daughter of the Dailamite Firuzanid nobleman Al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, who was the cousin of the prominent Dailamite general Makan ibn Kaki.[4] However, according to the Encyclopædia Iranica, Fanna Khusraw's mother was a Turkic concubine.[5]

Reign

Rule in Fars

Map of Fars and it's surrounding regions in the 9th–10th centuries

In 948, Fanna Khusraw was chosen by his uncle Imad al-Dawla as his successor because he had no heir. Imad al-Dawla died in December 949. Unfortunately this appointment was not accepted by the court. A rebellion against Fanna Khusraw occurred shortly after. Rukn al-Dawla quickly left southern Iran to save his son, and was joined by the vizier of Mu'izz al-Dawla for the same purpose. Both managed to put Adud al-Dawla on the throne in Shiraz. Fanna Khusraw then requested the title of "Taj al-Dawla" (Crown of the state) from the Abbasid Caliph. However, to Mu'izz al-Dawla, the title of "Taj" ("crown") implied that Fana Khusraw was the superior ruler of the Buyid Empire, provoking a reaction from him, and making him decline Fanna Khusraw's request. A more suitable title ("Adud al-Dawla") ("Pillar of the [Abbasid] Dynasty") was instead chosen.[6][1] Adud was only thirteen when he was crowned as the ruler of Fars, and was educated there by his tutor Abu 'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid.[7]

Adud's father Rukn al-Dawla, who was the most of powerful Buyid rulers, claimed the title of senior emir. Mu'izz al-Dawla and Adud al-Dawla recognized this prerogative. In 955, a Dailamite military officer named Muhammad ibn Makan, seized Isfahan from Rukn al-Dawla. Adud al-Dawla then marched towards Isfahan and recaptured Isfahan from Muhammad ibn Makan.[8] Another Dailamite military officer named Ruzbahan also shortly rebelled against Mu'izz al-Dawla, while his brother Bullaka rebelled against Adud al-Dawla at Shiraz. Abu 'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid, however, managed to suppress the rebellion.

In 966, Adud al-Dawla and Mu'izz al-Dawla made a campaign to impose Buyid rule in Oman. Mu'izz al-Dawla died in 967, and was succeeded by his eldest son Izz al-Dawla as emir of Iraq. The same year, Adud aided the Ziyarid Bisutun in securing the Ziyarid throne from his brother Qabus. Adud and Bisutun then made an alliance, and Bisutun married a daughter of Adud,[9] while he married a daughter of Bisutun.[10]

Campaigns in eastern Iran

Adud al-Dawla took advantage of the quarrel between the Ilyasid ruler Muhammad ibn Ilyas and his son in Kerman to annex the province to his domain. Mu'izz al-Dawla had already attempted to conquer the province but was defeated by the Ilyasids. Adud al-Dawla conquered all of Kerman, and appointed his son Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris as the viceroy of the province,[11] while his officer Kurkir ibn Justan was appointed as the chief captain of the army of Kerman.[12]

In the next year, Adud negotiated peace with the Saffarid ruler Khalaf ibn Ahmad, who then agreed to recognize Buyid authority.[8] However, Sulaiman, the son of Muhammad ibn Ilyas, wanted to regain his kingdom of Kerman, and invaded the region. Adud al-Dawla managed to defeat the armies of Sulaiman and continued to expand his domains to the strait of Hormuz.[1] During his campaign in southern Iran, many Iranian tribes converted to Islam and pledged allegiance. On August/September 971, Adud al-Dawla launched a punitive expedition against the Baloch tribes who had renounced their oath. They were defeated on January 8, 972. Adud al-Dawla installed loyal landowners to control the region. Afterwards, Adud al-Dawla and his father Rukn al-Dawla signed a peace treaty with the Samanids by paying them 150,000 dinars. On the same year, Adud al-Dawla conquered Sohar, and expanded his domains in much of Oman.

Rebellion of Sebük-Tegin and aftermath

In 974, Izz al-Dawla was trapped in Wasit by his troops who under leader Sebük-Tegin had rebelled against him. Adud al-Dawla quickly left Fars to quell the rebellion, where he inflicted a decisive defeat on the rebels on January 30, 975, who under their new leader Alptakin fled to Syria.[13] Adud al-Dawla then made a plot which forced Izz al-Dawla to abdicate in his favor on March 12, 975.[1] Rukn al-Dawla, greatly angered at this action, protested against Adud al-Dawla, claiming that the line of Mu'izz al-Dawla could not be removed from power. Adud al-Dawla tried to make an agreement with his father by proposing to pay tribute to him. Rukn al-Dawla, however, rejected his offer, and then restored Izz al-Dawla as the ruler of Iraq. The consequences of the restoration of Izz al-Dawla would later lead to war between him and Adud al-Dawla after the death of Rukn al-Dawla.[1]

In 975 Adud al-Dawla launched an expedition to take Bam and defeated another son of Muhammad ibn Ilyas who sought to reconquer to Kerman.

Struggle for power in Iraq and war with the Hamdanids

Map of Iraq in the 9th–10th centuries

On September 16, 976, Rukn al-Dawla, the last of the first generation Buyids, died. After his death, Izz al-Dawla prepared to take revenge against Adud-Dawla. He made an alliance with Fakhr al-Dawla, the brother of Adud-Dawla and his father's successor to the territories around Hamadan. He also made an alliance with the Hamdanids prevailing in northern Iraq, the Hasanwayhid ruler Hasanwayh and the ruler of the marshy areas of southern Iraq. However, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, the third son of Rukn al-Dawla, remained loyal to his eldest brother.[1]

Izz al-Dawla then stopped recognizing the rule of his cousin Adud-Dawla, and stopped mentioning his name during Friday prayers. Adud al-Dawla, greatly outraged by his cousin, marched towards Khuzestan and easily defeated him in Ahvaz on July 1, 977. Izz al-Dawla then asked Adud al-Dawla for permission to retire and settle in Syria. However, on the road to Syria, Izz al-Dawla became convinced by Abu Taghlib, the Hamdanid ruler of Mosul, to go fight again against his cousin. On May 29, 978, Izz al-Dawla along with Abu Taghlib invaded the domains of his Adud al-Dawla and fought against him near Samarra. Izz al-Dawla was once again defeated, and was captured and executed at the orders of Adud al-Dawla.[7][14] He then marched to Mosul and captured the city,[15] which forced Abu Taghlib to flee to Byzantine territory in Anzitene where he asked for aid. Adud then spent one year in Mosul to consolidate his power, while his army were completing the conquest of Diyar Bakr and Diyar Mudar;[8] The important Hamdanid city of Mayyafariqin was shortly captured by them, which forced Abu Taghlib to flee to Rahba from where he tried to negotiate peace with Adud al-Dawla.[16] Unlike the rest of the Buyids who had held the region temporarily, Adud-Dawla had complete control of the region during the rest of his reign.

Adud al-Dawla, now the ruler of Iraq, then took control of the territories under the control of the Bedouins and Kurds. He also killed almost all the sons of Hasanwayh, and appointed Badr ibn Hasanwayh, the last surviving son of Hasanwayh, as the ruler of the Hasanwayhid dynasty.[17] It should be understood that during that period the word "Kurd" meant nomad.[1] He then subdued the Shayban tribe, and fought against Hasan ibn 'Imran, the ruler of Batihah. He was, however, defeated, and made peace with Hasan who agreed to recognize his authority. During the same period, Adud al-Dawla had Ibn Baqiyya, Izz al-Dawla's former vizier, executed.

War in northern Iran

Map of northern Iran

During the same period, Bisutun died, and his kingdom was thrown into civil war; his governor of Tabaristan, Dubaj ibn Bani, supported his son as the new Ziyarid ruler, while Bisutun's brother Qabus claimed the throne for himself. Adud quickly sent an army to aid Qabus against Dubaj. Qabus managed to defeat him and capture the son of Bisutun in Simnan. Adud then made the Abbasid caliph give Qabus the title of Shams al-Ma'ali.[18]

In May 979, Adud-Dawla invaded the territories of his brother Fakhr al-Dawla, who was forced to flee to Qazvin and then to Nishapur, a large part of his troops deserted. Adud-Dawla then moved to Kerman and later Kermanshah where he set up a governor. In August/September 980, Adud-Dawla captured Hamadan and occupied the entire area south of the city which would remain in Buyid hands in half a century. Shortly after, on October/November of the same year, Sahib ibn Abbad, the vizier of Adud's younger brother Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, arrived from Ray to negotiate a transfer of power in the city in favor of his master. Adud-Dawla, recognized his younger brother Mu'ayyad because of his loyalty, and gave him the troops of Fakhr al-Dawla and helped him conquer Tabaristan and Gorgan from Qabus who had betrayed Adud by giving refugee to Fakhr al-Dawla. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla shortly managed to conquer these two provinces.[1]

Consolidation of the Empire

Adud al-Dawla was now the senior ruler of the Buyid Empire, and several rulers such as the Hamdanids, Saffarids, Shahinids, Hasanwayhids and even other lesser rulers who controlled Yemen, including its surrounding regions, acknowledged his authority.[17][1] Other regions such as Makran, was also under Buyid control.[17]

Adud then returned to Baghdad, where he built and restored several buildings in the city. He also stopped the quarrel between the Dailamites and Turks of the Buyid army.[19] In 982, a Byzantine envoy arrived to the court of Adud al-Dawla, where they negotiated peace with him, and also agreed to make mention his name in the Friday prayer in Constantinople. The vizier of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, Sahib ibn Abbad, is known to have said the following thing about this event: "he [Adud al-Dawla] has done what no kings of the Arabs nor any Chosroes [kings] of the Persians could - he has Syria and the two Iraqs, and he is close to the Despot of Byzantium and the Maghribi by his continuous correspondence."[20]

Administration and contributions

Picture of the Qur'an Gate in Shiraz, constructed during the reign of Adud al-Dawla

Adud al-Dawla kept his court in Shiraz. He visited Baghdad frequently and kept some of his viziers there. He had a Christian vizier named Nasir ibn Harun.[1] He also had several Zoroastrian statesmen who served him, such as Abu Sahl Sa'id ibn Fadl al-Majusi, who served as his representative of Baghdad before his conquest of Iraq; Abu'l-Faraj Mansur ibn Sahl al-Majusi, who served as his financial minister; and Bahram ibn Ardashir al-Majusi, who served as a Buyid official. Adud al-Dawla seems to have greatly respected their religion.[21]

Under him the Buyid kingdom flourished. His policies were liberal so there were no riots during his reign. He embellished Baghdad with numerous public buildings. He also built a famous public hospital known as the Al-'Adudi Hospital. It was the largest hospital of that time, and was destroyed during the Mongol conquests.[1] Many prominent figures worked at the hospital, such as 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi and Ibn Marzuban.

Adud al-Dawla also build caravanserai's and dams. The city that has particularly benefited from this work is Shiraz. In the region of Shiraz, he built a palace with three hundred and sixty rooms with advanced wind towers for air conditioning system of residential rooms. The population of Shiraz had increased so much during his reign that he built a satellite city near the city for his army. The name of city was Kard-e Khosrow Fanna (made by Khusraw Fanna), making a clear reference to the names that the Sasanians gave their foundations.[1]

There were two annual festivals in the city. The first to commemorate the day when the water pipe reached the city and the second to recall the date of the founding of the city. Both celebrations were instituted by Adud al-Dawla on the model of the holiday of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year.

All these activities greatly expanded the economy of Fars so that the tax income was tripled in the 10th-century. His contributions to the enrichment of Fars made it a region of relative stability and prosperity for the culture of Iran during the Seljuq and Mongol invasions.[1]

Family

Adud al-Dawla, in order to maintain peace, established marriage ties with several rulers;[10] his daughter was married to the Abbasid at-Ta'i, while another was married to the Samanids and the Ziyarid ruler Bisutun. Adud al-Dawla himself had several wives, which included; the daughter of Bisutun; the daughter of Manadhar, an Justanid king; and the daughter of Siyahgil, an Giilite king. From these wives, Adud al-Dawla had several sons; Abu'l-Husain Ahmad and Abu Tahir Firuzshah, from the daughter of Manadhar; Abu Kalijar Marzuban, from the daughter of Siyahgil; and Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, from a Turkic concubine. Adud al-Dawla also had a younger son named Baha' al-Dawla. Abu'l-Husain Ahmad was supported by his mother and his uncle Fuladh ibn Manadhar as the heir of the Buyid Empire. However, Abu Kalijar Marzuban, because of his more prominent descent, was appointed as heir of the Buyid Empire by Adud al-Dawla.

Death and succession

Adud al-Dawla died at Baghdad on March 26, 983,[1] and was buried in Najaf. His son Abu Kalijar Marzuban, who was in Baghdad at the time of his death, first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession and avoid civil war. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war.[22]

Legacy

Map of the Buyid Empire at the death of Adud al-Dawla (Yemen not shown)

Adud al-Dawla, like the previous Buyid rulers, maintained the Abbasids in Baghdad, which gave legitimacy to his dynasty in the eyes of some Sunni Muslims. However, he showed more interest than his predecessors to the pre-Islamic culture of Iran, and was proud of his Iranian origin.[23] He visited Persepolis along with Marasfand, the Zoroastrian Mobad of Kazerun,[21] who read the pre-Islamic inscriptions in the city for him. Adud al-Dawla later left an inscription in the city, which tells about his awareness of being heir of a pre-Islamic civilization. Adud al-Dawla even claimed descent from the Sasanian king Bahram V Gur,[24] minted coins of him wearing a Sasanian type crown, and carried the traditional Sasanian inscription; Shahanshah, may his glory increase. While the reverse side of the coin said: May Shah Fana Khusraw live long.[25]

However, he still preferred Arabic authors more than Persian ones. There is very little evidence which shows his interest in Persian poetry. He spoke Arabic, wrote in Arabic and was proud to be a student of a famous Arab grammarian. He studied science in Arabic, including astronomy and mathematics. Many books written in Arabic were dedicated to him whether religious or secular content. Apparently showing interest in Arabic rather than Persian, Adud-Dawla followed the mainstream of intellectual life in a provincial town where culture was dominated by Arabic and Persian.[1]

Like many of his contemporaries, he does not seem to have felt that his admiration for the pre-Islamic Iranian civilization conflicted with his Muslim Shiite faith. According to some accounts, he repaired the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, and built a mausoleum of Ali in Najaf, which is today known as the Imam Ali Mosque. He is said to have been generous to a prominent Shiite theologian. However, he did not follow a Shiite religious policy and was tolerant to the Sunnis. He even tried to get closer to the Sunnis by giving his daughter in marriage to the Caliph, which was a failure because the caliph refused to consummate the marriage.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ch. Bürgel & R. Mottahedeh 1988, pp. 265-269.
  2. ^ Patrick Clawson & Michael Rubin 2005, p. 19.
  3. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 275.
  4. ^ Ibn Isfandiyar 1905, pp. 204–270.
  5. ^ Wolfgang Felix, Wilferd Madelung 1995, pp. 342–347.
  6. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 263.
  7. ^ a b Kennedy 2004, p. 230.
  8. ^ a b c Donohue 2003, pp. 68-69.
  9. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 214.
  10. ^ a b Donohue 2003, pp. 86-93.
  11. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 266.
  12. ^ Amedroz & Margoliouth 1921, p. 271.
  13. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 224.
  14. ^ Taylor & Francis 2006, p. 16.
  15. ^ Kennedy 2004, pp. 272, 230.
  16. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 272.
  17. ^ a b c Bosworth 1975, p. 270.
  18. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 215.
  19. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 233.
  20. ^ Donohue 2003, pp. 78-79.
  21. ^ a b Donohue 2003, p. 81.
  22. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 289.
  23. ^ Donohue 2003, p. 85.
  24. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 274.
  25. ^ Donohue 2003, p. 22.

Sources

'Adud al-Dawla
Preceded by
Imad al-Dawla
Buyid Amir (in Fars)
949–983
Succeeded by
Sharaf al-Dawla
Preceded by
Mu'izz al-Dawla
Buyid Amir (in Kerman)
967–983
Preceded by
Izz al-Dawla
Buyid Amir (in Iraq)
978–983
Succeeded by
Samsam al-Dawla