|Coin of Adud al-Dawla|
|Reign||949 - 983|
|Reign||967 - 983|
|Reign||978 - 983|
|Born||September 24, 936
|Died||March 26, 983
Baghdad (present day Iraq)
|Burial||Najaf (present day Iraq)|
Fana Khusraw (Persian: فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of Adud al-Dawla (Arabic: عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the [Abbasid] Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was king of the Buyid dynasty in Iran and Iraq. He is widely regarded as the greatest monarch of the dynasty, and one of the most powerful Muslim rulers during his late reign.
The son of Rukn al-Dawla, Fana Khusraw was given the title of Adud al-Dawla by the Abbasid caliph in 948 when he was made emir of Fars after the death of his childless uncle Imad al-Dawla, after which Rukn al-Dawla became the senior emir of the Buyids. In 974 Adud al-Dawla was sent by his father to save his cousin Izz al-Dawla from a rebellion. After defeating the rebel forces, he claimed the emirate of Iraq for himself, and forced his cousin to abdicate. His father, however, became angered by this decision and restored Izz al-Dawla. After the death of Adud al-Dawla's father, his cousin rebelled against him, but was defeated. Adud al-Dawla became afterwards the sole ruler of the Buyid dynasty and assumed the title Shahanshah (King of Kings).
When Adud al-Dawla became emir of Iraq, the capital of the city, Baghdad was suffering from violence and instability owing to sectarian conflict. In order to bring peace and stability to the city, he ordered the banning of public demonstrations and polemics. At the same time, he patronized a number of Shi'a scholars such as al-Mufid, and he sponsored the renovation of a number of important Shi'a shrines.
In addition, 'Adud al-Dawla is credited with sponsoring and patronizing other scientific projects during his time. An observatory was built by his orders in Isfahan where Azophi worked. Al-Muqaddasi also reports that he ordered the construction of a great dam between Shiraz and Estakhr in 960. The dam irrigated some 300 villages in Fars province and became known as Band-e Amir (port of the Amir). Among his other major constructions was the digging of the Haffar channel, that joined the Karun river to the Arvand Rud river (the confluence of Tigris and Euphrates). The port of Khorramshahr was built on the Haffar, at its joining point with the Arvand Rud.
Emir of Fars
In 948, Adud al-Dawla was chosen by his uncle Imad al-Dawla as his successor because he had no heir. Imad al-Dawla died in December 949. Unfortunately this appointment was not accepted by the court. A rebellion against Adud al-Dawla occurred shortly after. Rukn al-Dawla quickly left southern Iran to save his son, and was joined by the vizier of Mu'izz al-Dawla for the same purpose. Both managed to put Adud al-Dawla on the throne in Shiraz. Adud al-Dawla was also rewarded by the Abbasid Caliph and received the title of Adud al-Dawla ("Pillar of the [Abbasid] Dynasty").
His father Rukn al-Dawla, who was the most powerful Buyid, claimed the title of senior emirs. Mu'izz al-Dawla and Adud al-Dawla recognized this prerogative. In 966, Adud al-Dawla and Mu'izz al-Dawla made a campaign to impose Buyid rule in Oman.
Conquest of Kerman
Adud al-Dawla took advantage of the quarrel between Muhammad ibn Ilyas and his son in Kerman to annex the province to his domain. Mu'izz al-Dawla had already attempted to conquer the province but the Banu Ilyas managed to regain control of the region. Adud al-Dawla conquered all of Kerman in the next year and negotiated peace with Khalaf ibn Ahmad, the Saffarid ruler of Sistan, who played a key role in weakening the enemies of the Buyids, that is to say, the Samanids. However, Sulaiman, the son of Muhammad ibn Ilyas, wanted to regain his kingdom of Kerman, and invaded the region. Adud al-Dawla managed to defeat the armies of Sulaiman and continued to expand his domains to the strait of Hormuz. During his campaign in southern Iran, many Iranian tribes converted to Islam and pledged allegiance. On August/September 971, Adud al-Dawla launched a punitive expedition against the Baloch tribes who had renounced their oath. They were defeated on January 8, 972. Adud al-Dawla installed loyal landowners to control the region. Afterwards, Adud al-Dawla and his father Rukn al-Dawla signed a peace treaty with the Samanids by paying them 150,000 dinars. On the same year, Adud al-Dawla conquered Sohar, and expanded his domains in much of Oman.
In 974, Izz al-Dawla was trapped in Wasit by his troops who rebelled against him. Adud al-Dawla quickly left Fars to quell the rebellion, where he inflicted a decisive defeat on the rebels on January 30 975. He also made a plot which forced Izz al-Dawla to abdicate in his favor on March 12, 975. His father, Rukn al-Dawla, refused his abdication and restored Izz al-Dawla. The consequences of the restoration of Izz al-Dawla would later lead to war between the two amirs after the death of Rukn al-Dawla.
Death of Rukn al-Dawla
On September 16, 976, Rukn al-Dawla, the last of the first generation Buyids, died. After his death, Izz al-Dawla prepared to take revenge against Adud-Dawla. He made an alliance with Fakhr al-Dawla, the brother of Adud-Dawla and his father's successor to the territories around Hamadan. He also made an alliance with the Hamdanids prevailing in northern Iraq, the Kurdish leader Hasanûya Barzekânî and the ruler of the marshy areas of southern Iraq. However, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, the third son of Rukn al-Dawla, remained loyal to his eldest brother.
Izz al-Dawla then stopped recognizing the rule of his cousin Adud-Dawla, and stopped mentioning his name during Friday prayers. Adud al-Dawla, greatly outraged by his cousin, marched towards Khuzestan and easily defeated him in Ahvaz on July 1, 977. Izz al-Dawla then asked Adud al-Dawla for permission to retire and settle in Syria. However, on the road to Syria, Izz al-Dawla became convinced by Abu Taghlib, the Hamdanid king of Mosul, to go fight again against his cousin. On May 29, 978, Izz al-Dawla along with Abu Taghlib invaded the domains of his Adud al-Dawla and fought against him near Samarra. Izz al-Dawla was once again defeated, and was captured and executed at the orders of Adud al-Dawla. He then marched to Mosul and captured the city, which forced Abu Taghlib to flee to Byzantine territory in Anzitene where asked for aid. The important Hamdanid city of Mayyafariqin was afterwards captured by the Buyids, which forced Abu Taghlib to flee to Rahba from where he tried to negotiate peace with Adud al-Dawla.
After defeating his cousin, Adud al-Dawla became emir of Iraq. Unlike the rest of the Buyids who had held the Khuzestan temporarily, Adud-Dawla had complete control of the region during the rest of his reign. He later took control of the territories under the control of the Kurds, who were nearly independent from Abbasid rule. It should be understood that during that time the word "Kurd" meant nomad.
In May 979, Adud-Dawla invaded the territories of his brother Fakhr al-Dawla, who was forced to flee to Qazvin and then to Nishapur, a large part of his troops deserted. Adud-Dawla then moved to Kerman and later Kermanshah where he set up a governor. In August/September 980, Adud-Dawla captured Hamadan and occupied the entire area south of the city which would remain in Buyid hands in half a century. Shortly after, on October/November of the same year, Ismail ibn Abbad, the vizier of Adud's younger brother Mu'ayyad al-Dawla, arrived from Ray to negotiate a transfer of power in the city in favor of his master. Adud-Dawla, recognized his younger brother because of his loyalty, and gave him the troops of Fakhr al-Dawla and helped him against the Samanids who allied with Ziyarids to conquer Tabaristan and Gorgan. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla later managed to conquer these two provinces.
Administration and contributions
Adud al-Dawla kept his court in Shiraz. He visited Baghdad frequently and kept some of his ministers there. He had a Christian minister named Nasr Ibn Harun. Under him the Buyid kingdom flourished. His policies were liberal so there were no riots during his reign. He embellished Baghdad with numerous public buildings. He also built a famous public hospital named Al-Adudi. It was the largest hospital of that time, the hospital was destroyed during the Mongol conquests. He also founded the Bimaristan-e Adudi (Al-Adudi Hospital) which was where the great polymath Rhazes spent his last days practicing in.
Adud al-Dawla also build caravanserai's and dams. The city that has particularly benefited from this work is Shiraz. In the region of Shiraz, he built a palace with three hundred and sixty rooms with advanced wind towers for air conditioning system of residential rooms. The population of Shiraz had increased so much during his reign that he built a satellite city near the city for his army. The name of city was Kard-e Khosrow Fanna (made by Khusraw Fanna), making a clear reference to the names that the Sasanians gave their foundations.
There were two annual festivals in the city. The first to commemorate the day when the water pipe reached the city and the second to recall the date of the founding of the city. Both celebrations were instituted by Adud al-Dawla on the model of the holiday of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year.
All these activities greatly expanded the economy of Fars so that the tax income was tripled in the tenth century. His contributions to the enrichment of Fars made it a region of relative stability and prosperity for the culture of Iran during the Seljuq and Mongol invasions.
Death and legacy
Adud al-Dawla, like the previous Buyid rulers, maintained the Abbasids in Baghdad, which gave legitimacy to his dynasty in the eyes of some Sunni Muslims. However, he showed more interest than his predecessors to the pre-Islamic culture of Iran. He visited Persepolis where he left an inscription which shows his awareness of being heir of a pre-Islamic civilization. He even minted coins of him wearing a Sasanian type crown, and carrying the traditional Sasanian inscription; Shahanshah, may his glory increase. While the reverse side of the coin said: May Shah Fana Khusraw live long.
However, he still preferred Arabic authors more than Persian ones. There is very little evidence which shows his interest in Persian poetry. He spoke Arabic, wrote in Arabic and was proud to be a student of a famous Arab grammarian. He studied science in Arabic, including astronomy and mathematics. Many books written in Arabic were dedicated to him whether religious or secular content. Apparently showing interest in Arabic rather than Persian, Adud-Dawla followed the mainstream of intellectual life in a provincial town where culture was dominated by Arabic and Persian.
Like many of his contemporaries, he does not seem to have felt that his admiration for the pre-Islamic Iranian civilization conflicted with his Muslim Shiite faith. According to some accounts, he repaired the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, and built a mausoleum of Ali in Najaf, which is today known as the Imam Ali Mosque. He is said to have been generous to a prominent Shiite theologian. However, he did not follow a Shiite religious policy and was tolerant to the Sunnis. He even tried to get closer to the Sunnis by giving his daughter in marriage to the Caliph, which was a failure because the caliph refused to consummate the marriage.
Encyclopaedia Iranica states the following thing about him:
|“||When Adud al-Dawla died on 8 Šawwāl 372/26 March 983, he was not only the direct ruler of Fārs (the site of his capital, Shiraz), Iraq and parts of the Jazīra to the north of Iraq, but also controlled, through his brother, his sons, and vassals, territories from the border of Khorasan to the Byzantine border in Syria, and from Oman to the shores of the Caspian. He was, moreover, recognized by lesser kings as their overlord as far away as the Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean. The Byzantines, who had for a period raided into Syria without fear of reprisals, had sought and gained a treaty in exchange for Adud al Dawla's promise not to support Bardos Scleros, the Byzantine pretender who had escaped to Baghdad. Similarly the Fatimids, who had been hostile to earlier Buyids, had tried to gain his good favor in order to avoid any contest of strength with him. The Samanids had more direct reason to fear him, since his support for Mu'ayyad al-Dawla had laid Khorasan open to his brother. No other Buyid ruler had been, or would be, nearly as successful in military matters.||”|
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|Buyid Amir (in Fars)
|Buyid Amir (in Kerman)
|Buyid Amir (in Iraq)