ʻAkikiki

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ʻAkikiki
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Fringillidae
Subfamily: Carduelinae
Genus: Oreomystis
Species: O. bairdi
Binomial name
Oreomystis bairdi
(Stejneger, 1887)

The ʻAkikiki (Oreomystis bairdi), also called the Kauaʻi Creeper, is a critically endangered bird endemic to Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi. It is a Hawaiian honeycreeper.

Description[edit]

The ʻAkikiki is small (13 cm length; 12-17 g mass),[2] with grey plumage above and white below. It is not sexually dimorphic. Juveniles have large white eye rings; adults may retain a pale eyebrow for several years. Legs and bill are pink. Tail is short compared to other birds on Kauaʻi, giving it a stocky appearance.

Vocalizations[edit]

Adult contact call is a short weet or whit, sometimes doubled. Call may also resemble that of the ʻAnianiau, with which it may flock. Song, heard only in breeding season, a descending trill.[3] Juvenile begging call a stuttering series of chits. During the breeding season, females use a similar call to solicit feeding by males.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Currently found only in the highest elevation native rainforests of Kokeʻe State Park and the Alakaʻi Wilderness Preserve on Kauaʻi.[4] Subfossil records indicate that it was once found at sea level as well, and thus may have inhabited a wider range of habitats, including dry forest.[5]

Diet and foraging behaviour[edit]

The ʻAkikiki is often compared to the nuthatches of North America because it forages by hopping along the trunks and branches of both live and dead trees, picking off arthropods.[2] ʻAkikiki often forage in pairs, family groups, or mixed-species flocks.[5]

Breeding[edit]

Few ʻAkikiki nests have been found. Nesting occurs from March to June, with both males and females constructing nests of moss and lichen several metres up in the crowns of ʻohiʻa trees.[6] Only the female incubates the eggs, but both parents feed the nestlings and fledglings.[6] The long juvenile dependency period means only a single brood per pair is typically raised each breeding season.

Threats[edit]

The ʻAkikiki’s habitat has been reduced to a fragment of its former range by deforestation and deterioration by invasive species. Avian malaria, to which most Hawaiian honeycreepers have little immunity, affects birds below approximately 1000 m elevation and further restricts the ʻAkikiki’s range.[5] Introduced rats are thought to be major predators of eggs and nestlings. Competition for food and space with non-native birds, such as Japanese White-eye, may also impact its numbers.[5]

Conservation[edit]

The ʻAkikiki has been listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2000.[1] It was a candidate for listing as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act since 1993, but was not listed as such until 2010.[7] Because little is known about this species, the primary focus of recovery efforts so far have been estimating the population size and understanding its basic biology.[8] Captive breeding, reintroduction, and habitat restoration are planned.[5] [8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Oreomystis bairdi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Pratt, H. Douglas (2005). The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019854653X. 
  3. ^ Kuhn, David. "Native Birds of Kauai". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  4. ^ BirdLife International. "Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi)". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "ʻAkikiki or Kauaʻi Creeper" (PDF). Hawaii’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. State of Hawaiʻi. 2005-10-01. 
  6. ^ a b Foster, J. T., et al. Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi). In: Poole, A. and F. Gill (eds.) The Birds of North America. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Birds of North America Inc. 2000.
  7. ^ "Newly designated endangered species". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b Kauai Forest Bird Working Group. "ʻAkikiki Five-Year Recovery Plan". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 

External links[edit]