List of Internet top-level domains

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This is a list of Internet top-level domains (TLDs). A top-level domain is a domain name in the Domain Name System that is a direct subdomain of the DNS root zone.

The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1]

In an initiative to expand the domain name space, IANA is considering approval of several proposed top-level domains.

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and pre-date the creation of ICANN in 1998.[2]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.com commercial This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting". Yes Yes
.org organization This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes
.net network This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes
.int international organizations The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, there are a few grandfathered domain names that do not meet these criteria. No No
.edu educational The .edu TLD is limited to specific educational institutions such as, but not limited to, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities. In the US, its usability was limited in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies maintained by the United States Department of Education. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes
.gov governmental The .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the US. No Yes
.mil US military The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa Address and Routing Parameter Area Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. "Address and Routing Parameter Area" is an example of a backronym. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

Note: the country code domain system was created in the early days of the Domain Name System, and pre-dates ICANN.

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island   Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official British academic domain .ac.uk. Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra   Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required [3][4]   No Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates       No Yes
.af  Afghanistan       Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda   Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a legal entity form similar to a corporation limited by shares)   Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla       No Yes
.al  Albania   Citizenship no longer required   No No
.am  Armenia   Also unofficially used by AM Radio Stations or related business   Yes Yes
.an  Netherlands Antilles Local presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010;   No Yes
.ao  Angola       No  
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica.   No Yes
.ar  Argentina     Yes[a 1] No No
.as  American Samoa       No Yes
.at  Austria       Yes Yes
.au  Australia   Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and most have a minimum 2 year registration period.[5] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands.   No No
.aw  Aruba Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.ax  Åland       No Yes
.az  Azerbaijan       No Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina     No Yes
.bb  Barbados       No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh       No No
.be  Belgium   Also unofficially used in the canton of Berne, Switzerland Yes Yes Yes
.bf  Burkina Faso       No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria     Yes[a 2] Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain       No Yes
.bi  Burundi       No Yes
.bj  Benin       No Yes
.bm  Bermuda   Local corporate registration required   No Yes
.bn  Brunei       No No
.bo  Bolivia       No Yes
.br  Brazil   Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[6] Yes[7] Yes No[a 3]
.bs  Bahamas       No Yes
.bt  Bhutan       No No
.bv  Bouvet Island   Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no). No No No
.bw  Botswana       No Yes
.by  Belarus Byelorussia also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany   Yes Yes
.bz  Belize       Yes Yes
.ca  Canada   Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Yes[a 4] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands   Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain.   Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic       No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica (Latin)   Yes[a 5] Yes Yes
.ci  Côte d'Ivoire       No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands       No Yes
.cl  Chile     Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon   A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name.   No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China   A local company in China is required to register a domain name. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.   Yes Yes
.co  Colombia   Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register.   Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica       Yes Yes
.cs  Czechoslovakia This ccTLD was deleted around January 1995. The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead.   No No
.cu  Cuba       No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde       No Yes
.cw  Curaçao Curaçao, West Indies     No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island       Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus       No No
.cz  Czech Republic     No[a 6] Yes Yes
.dd  East Germany Deutsche Demokratische Republik Was proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification.   No No
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[a 7] Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti       No Yes
.dk  Denmark     Yes[a 8] Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica       No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic       No Yes
.dz  Algeria al-Djaza'er     No Yes
.ec  Ecuador       No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Anyone can register but local administrative contact is required. Yes[a 9] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt       No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara   .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.   No  
.er  Eritrea   Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains.   No No
.es  Spain España     No Yes
.et  Ethiopia       No No
.eu  European Union   Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[a 10] Yes Yes
.fi  Finland   Restricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland. Yes[a 11] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji       No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands       No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia   Also unofficially used by FM Radio Stations or related business   No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands Føroyar     Yes Yes
.fr  France   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon       No Yes
.gb  United Kingdom Great Britain Deprecated.[9] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk.   No No
.gd  Grenada       No Yes
.ge  Georgia   Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[10] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana Guyane française   No  
.gg  Guernsey       No Yes
.gh  Ghana       No No
.gi  Gibraltar       Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland   Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014   Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia       No Yes
.gn  Guinea   A local contact is required   Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe   Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin   No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale     No  
.gr  Greece     Yes[a 14] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands       Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala     Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam       No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau       No Yes
.gy  Guyana       No Yes
.hk  Hong Kong   Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes No Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands       No Yes
.hn  Honduras       Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska     No Yes
.ht  Haiti     Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary   Restricted to Hungarian companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.id  Indonesia   Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[11] Yes Partial[12] Yes
.ie  Ireland   In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[13][14] No No Yes
.il  Israel     Yes No No
.im  Isle of Man       No Yes
.in  India   Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in).   Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory   Used unofficially by technology companies/startups/web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output which is useful for domain hacks.   Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq       Partial[12] Yes
.ir  Iran     Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland   Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy   Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[a 15] No Yes
.je  Jersey       No Yes
.jm  Jamaica       No No
.jo  Jordan       No Yes
.jp  Japan   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan.   Yes Yes
.ke  Kenya       Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan       Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer, former Kâmpŭchea     No No
.ki  Kiribati       Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori     No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis       No Yes
.kp  Democratic People's Republic of Korea       No No
.kr  Republic of Korea     Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait       No No
.ky  Cayman Islands   Restricted to qualified Cayman entities[15]   No Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan       No Yes
.la  Laos   Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[16]   Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon   Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon   Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia       Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein   Also used by Long Island Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka     Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia       Partial[12] No
.ls  Lesotho       No No
.lt  Lithuania     Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg     Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia     Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya       No Yes
.ma  Morocco Maroc Also used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma   Partial[12] Yes
.mc  Monaco   Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco   No Yes
.md  Moldova   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova.   No Yes
.me  Montenegro       Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar       No Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands       No  
.mk  Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in Macedonia   No Yes
.ml  Mali       No Yes
.mm  Myanmar       Yes No
.mn  Mongolia   The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information.   Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[17]   No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands       No Yes
.mq  Martinique     No No
.mr  Mauritania       No Yes
.ms  Montserrat       No Yes
.mt  Malta       No No
.mu  Mauritius       No Yes
.mv  Maldives       No Yes
.mw  Malawi       No Yes
.mx  Mexico       No Yes
.my  Malaysia   Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[a 16] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique       No No
.na  Namibia       Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia       Yes Yes
.ne  Niger       No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island       Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria       No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua       No No
.nl  Netherlands Nederland First official country code TLD.[18] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway   Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes No Yes
.np    Nepal       No No
.nr  Nauru   Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.   No Yes
.nu  Niue   Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand     Yes[a 17] Yes No
.om  Oman   Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact.   No No
.pa  Panama       No No
.pe  Peru     Yes[a 18] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia Polynésie française With Clipperton Island   No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea       No No
.ph  Philippines       No Yes
.pk  Pakistan   Operated by PKNIC since 1992   No Yes
.pl  Poland     Yes[a 19] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands       No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico       Yes Yes
.ps  State of Palestine[19]   West Bank and Gaza Strip.   No Yes
.pt  Portugal     Yes[a 20] Yes Yes Yes[20]
.pw  Palau Pelew     Yes Yes
.py  Paraguay       No No
.qa  Qatar       No No
.re  Réunion   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania       No Yes
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija     No Yes
.ru  Russia   See also .su, still in use, and .рф.   Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda       No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia   Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[21]   No Yes
.sb  Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands     Yes No
.sc  Seychelles       Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan       No Yes
.se  Sweden     Yes[a 21] Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore       No Yes
.sh  Saint Helena     Yes[a 22] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia   Yes[a 23] Yes Yes
.sj  Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen Islands
  Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no). No No No
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone       No Yes
.sm  San Marino   Domain name must be same as company name or trademark   No Yes
.sn  Senegal       No Yes
.so  Somalia   Relaunched on November 1, 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname       No Yes
.ss  South Sudan   Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013   No
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe       No Yes
.su  Soviet Union   Still in use. Yes[a 24] Yes Yes
.sv  El Salvador       No No
.sx  Sint Maarten       Yes No
.sy  Syria       No Yes
.sz  Swaziland   Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses.   No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands   .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is TC.   No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only.   No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo       No Yes
.th  Thailand     Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan       No Yes
.tk  Tokelau   Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch.   No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan     Yes[a 25] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia       No Yes
.to  Tonga   Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tp  East Timor Timor Português ISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tr  Turkey   .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[a 26] No Yes
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago       Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu   Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company.   Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan   Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan, Province of China."[22] Yes[a 27] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania   Must have a presence in Tanzania   Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Україна/Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required   Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda       Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom   The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[9]   Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Formerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD   Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay   2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[23]   No Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan       No Yes
.va   Vatican City Vaticano Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State)   No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines       Partial[12] Yes
.ve  Venezuela       No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vn  Vietnam     Yes[a 28] No Yes
.vu  Vanuatu       No Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Formerly Western Samoa Marketed to be used in general WebSites Yes No Yes
.ye  Yemen       No No
.yt  Mayotte   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.yu  SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
  After dissolution of Yugoslavia used for Serbia and Montenegro. Not used after 2010.   No No
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika     No No
.zm  Zambia       No No
.zw  Zimbabwe       No No

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

Full List of ICANN TLDs

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.academy academic institutes Open TLD Unknown Yes
.actor actors Open TLD Unknown Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. No No
.agency business associations Open TLD Unknown Yes
.associates business associations Open TLD Unknown Yes
.bar bars and pubs Open TLD Unknown Yes
.bargains coupons and online sellers Open TLD Unknown Yes
.bid auctions Open TLD Unknown Yes
.bike bicycles Open TLD French, Spanish[24] Yes
.biz business This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. No Yes
.blackfriday Day after (USA) Thanksgiving retail Open TLD Unknown Yes
.blue those who like blue[25] Open TLD Unknown Yes
.boutique specialized businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.build construction industry Open only to businesses within the construction industry[26] Unknown Yes
.builders construction workers Open TLD Unknown Yes
.buzz marketing and social networking Open TLD Unknown Yes
.cab cabs and taxi companies Open TLD Unknown Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Open TLD No Yes
.camp camps and camping Open TLD Unknown Yes
.capital financial firms Open TLD Unknown Yes
.cards general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.cash financial Open TLD Unknown Yes
.catering Food service Open TLD Unknown Yes
.care healthcare industry Open TLD Unknown Yes
.careers Employment Open TLD Unknown Yes
.center general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.ceo CEOs Business owners and leaders only[27] Unknown Yes
.cheap Resellers Open TLD Unknown Yes
.christmas Christmas Open TLD Unknown Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Open TLD Unknown Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Open TLD Unknown Yes
.clothing Apparel Open TLD No Yes
.club groups, organizations, assemblies Open TLD[28] No Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Open TLD Unknown Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Open TLD Unknown Yes
.college Educational Open TLD Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Open TLD Unknown Yes
.company business associations Open TLD Unknown Yes
.computer Technology Open TLD Unknown Yes
.condos Real estate Open TLD Unknown Yes
.construction Construction industry Open TLD No Yes
.consulting Hired advisors Open TLD Unknown Yes
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Open TLD No Yes
.cool General interests Open TLD Unknown Yes
.coop Cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. No No
.cruises Cruise businesses and travel Open TLD Unknown Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Open TLD Unknown Yes
.date Online dating Open TLD Unknown Yes
.dating Online dating Open TLD Unknown Yes
.democrat Democractic Party politics Open TLD Unknown Yes
.dental dentists Open TLD Unknown Yes
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Open TLD Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Open TLD No Yes
.domains domain registries Open TLD Unknown Yes
.education educational institutes Open TLD Unknown Yes
.email Email Open TLD Unknown Yes
.engineering engineering firms Open TLD Unknown Yes
.enterprises business associations Open TLD Unknown Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Open TLD No Yes
.estate real estate businesses Open TLD No Yes
.events happenings Open TLD Unknown Yes
.exchange generic trade Open TLD Unknown Yes
.expert generic expertise Open TLD Unknown Yes
.fail general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Open TLD Unknown Yes
.financial financial Open TLD Unknown Yes
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Open TLD Unknown Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Open TLD Unknown Yes
.florist florists Open TLD Unknown Yes
.foo web development Open TLD[29] Unknown Unknown
.fund financial Open TLD Unknown Yes
.futbol soccer Open TLD Unknown Yes
.gallery photo and art galleries Open TLD No Yes
.gift gift-giving Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.glass Windows and pipes Open TLD Unknown Yes
.graphics Graphics Open TLD Yes[31] Yes
.gripe Opinion sites Open TLD Unknown Yes
.guitars Guitars Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.guru Generic expertise Open TLD French, Spanish[32] Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Open TLD No Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Open TLD Unknown Yes
.house real estate and construction businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.immobilien German for "real estate" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.industries industrial businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.info information This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Yes Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[33] Open TLD Yes Yes
.institute Established business associations Open TLD Unknown Yes
.international international entities Open TLD Unknown Yes
.investments financial Open TLD Unknown Yes
.jetzt German for "now" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.jobs company employment The .jobs TLD is designed to be added after the names of established companies with jobs to advertise. At this time, owners of a "company.jobs" domain are not permitted to post jobs of third party employers. No No
.kaufen German for "buy" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Open TLD No Yes
.kim people named Kim Open TLD
Kim is a common first name in the US and is also the most common Korean surname.
Unknown Yes
.land real estate Open TLD No Yes
.lease financing Open TLD Unknown Yes
.lighting lighting Open TLD No Yes
.limited general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.limo limousine businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.link connecting to information[34] Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.maison French for "house" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.management business management Open TLD Unknown Yes
.marketing marketing services Open TLD Unknown Yes
.media general media interests Open TLD Unknown Yes
.menu restaurants Open TLD Unknown Yes
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. No No
.moda Portuguese and Spanish for "fashion" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.moe Japanese otaku culture The word “moe” (in Japanese: “萌え”; pronounced as “moh-ay”) is a slang word rooted deep in the Japanese Otaku culture. It has often been used to mean a particular type of “adorable” or “cute” towards fictional characters, people, animals, etc.[35] Unknown Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Yes Yes
.name individuals, by name This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Yes Yes
.ninja general expertise Open TLD Unknown Yes
.onl online Open TLD Unknown Yes
.partners businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Open TLD Unknown Yes
.photo photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Open TLD No Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Unknown Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Unknown Yes
.pink those who like pink Open TLD Unknown Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Open TLD No Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[36] No[37] Yes
.pro professions Currently, .pro is reserved for licensed or certified professionals worldwide. A professional seeking to register a .pro domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate credentials. No No
.productions studio/art businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.products retail or whole-sale businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.properties real estate Open TLD Unknown Yes
.pub bars and pubs Open TLD Unknown Yes
.recipes recipes and cooking Open TLD Unknown Yes
.red intended for those who like the color red Open TLD
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Spanish variant of .net
Unknown Yes
.reisen German for "travel" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.reise German for "travel" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Open TLD Unknown Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.report business services Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rest restaurants Open TLD Yes[38] Yes
.reviews Public reviews Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rocks general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.services business services Open TLD Unknown Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.shiksha education entities in India "Shiksha" is Hindi for "education". Unknown Yes
.shoes shoes Open TLD Unknown Yes
.singles online dating Open TLD No Yes
.social general interest Open TLD Unknown Yes
.solar solar-power Open TLD Unknown Yes
.solutions Business services Open TLD Unknown Yes
.space space Open TLD Unknown Unknown
.supplies manufacturing industries Open TLD Unknown Yes
.supply manufacturing industries Open TLD Unknown Yes
.support help pages Open TLD French, Spanish[39] Yes
.surgery healthcare industry Open TLD Unknown Yes
.systems technology Open TLD Unknown Yes
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Open TLD Yes[30] Yes
.tax financial Open TLD Unknown Yes
.technology technology Open TLD No Yes
.tel Internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[40] No
.tienda Spanish for "shop", "store" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.tips general help topics Open TLD Unknown Yes
.today general Open TLD No Yes
.tools manufacturing industries Open TLD Unknown Yes
.town generic geographic Open TLD Unknown Yes
.toys toy businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.trade businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.training training and how-tos Open TLD Unknown Yes
.travel travel and tourism industry related sites Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No No
.university young adults, university life Open TLD Unknown Yes
.uno Spanish websites Open TLD Unknown Yes
.vacations travel Open TLD Unknown Yes
.ventures funding for start-ups Open TLD No Yes
.viajes Spanish for "travel" Open TLD Spanish Yes
.villas real estate and/or travel businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.vision eye-care businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.voting polling sites Open TLD Unknown Yes
.voyage travel Open TLD Unknown Yes
.wang general Open TLD
Wǎng is a pinyin of 网 (web).[41]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Unknown Yes
.watch Watches Open TLD Unknown Yes
.webcam Web cam shows and video sharing Open TLD Unknown Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[42]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[43]
No Yes
.wiki wikis "An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation" Yes Yes
.works General interests Open TLD Unknown Yes
.wtf general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. No No
.xyz general Open TLD Yes[44] Yes
.zone general Open TLD Unknown Yes

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and will allow second-level IDNs.

DNS Name IDN Language Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--ngbc5azd[45] شبكة. Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--q9jyb4c[45] .みんな Japanese minna "everyone" Open TLD [46] Yes
xn--3ds443g[45] .在线 Chinese zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[47]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[45] .中文网 Chinese Zhōngwén wǎng "Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[47]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[45] .移动 Chinese yídòng "mobile" Open TLD Yes
xn--ses554g[45] .网址 Chinese wǎngzhǐ "website" or "network address" Open TLD Yes

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Yes Yes
.berlin Berlin, Germany [48] Unknown Yes
.cat Catalunya, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[49] Unknown Unknown
.eus Basque, Spain and France This is a TLD for Web sites in the Basque language. Unknown No
.gal Galicia, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[50] Unknown Yes
.kiwi New Zealanders (aka kiwis) [51] Unknown Yes
.london London, United Kingdom [52] Unknown Yes
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [53] Unknown Yes
.nyc New York City, United States [54] Unknown Yes
.paris Paris, France [55] Unknown Yes
.quebec Québec, Canada [56] Unknown Unknown
.tokyo Tokyo [57] Yes Yes
.wien Vienna [58] Unknown Yes

Brand top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.axa AXA [59] No Yes
.bmw BMW [60] No Yes
.citic CITIC Group [61] No Yes
.mini Mini [62] No Yes
.monash Monash University [63][64] No Yes
.neustar Neustar [65] No Yes
.yandex Yandex [66]  ? Yes
.中信
(xn--fiq64b)
CITIC Group [67] Yes Yes

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (November 17, 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ in addition to ASCII, only Cyrillic letters from the Bulgarian language are accepted
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ French specific characters (â, à, æ, ç, é, ë, ê, è, î, ï, ô, œ, ù, û, ü, ÿ) allowed
  5. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  6. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[8]
  7. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  8. ^ (January 1, 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details
  9. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from June 13, 2011 [1]
  10. ^ Supported characters (latin, greek, cyrillic): see details
  11. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (latin): see details
  12. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  13. ^ a b c d e Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs
  14. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details
  15. ^ [2], [3]
  16. ^ .my Domain Registry
  17. ^ (July 26, 2010) for Māori macrons ā, ē, ī, ō and ū. See details
  18. ^ (8 December 2007): see details
  19. ^ (11 September 2003): see details
  20. ^ (1 July 2005) for Portuguese characters
  21. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  22. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain
  23. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  24. ^ (28 April 2008) see details
  25. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain
  26. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  27. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  28. ^ TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Transliteration Script Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  Algeria al Jaza'ir Arabic .dz No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bangla Bengali Not delegated .bd No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Zhōngguó Simplified Chinese .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Zhōngguó Traditional Chinese .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Masr [68] Arabic .eg No
xn--node .გე  Georgia GE Georgian Not delegated .ge No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Hoeng1 gong2 Both Traditional and Simplified Chinese .hk No
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Bhārat Devanagari Not in use .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Bhārat Urdu Not in use .in No
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Bhārat Telugu Not in use .in No
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Bhārat Gujarati Not in use .in No
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Bhārat Gurmukhi Not in use .in No
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Inthiyaa Tamil Not in use .in No
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bhārat Bengali Not in use .in No
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Īrān Persian .ir No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan al 'Urdun Arabic .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan qaz Cyrillic .kz No
xn--d1alf .мкд  Macedonia(F.Y.R.o.) mkd Cyrillic Not delegated .mk
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malaysia Arabic Not in use .my Yes
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia mon Mongolian Cyrillic Not in use .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco al Maghrib Arabic .ma No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Oman Arabic Not in use .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Pakistan Urdu Not delegated .pk No
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  State of Palestine Filastīn Arabic .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Qatar Arabic .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia rf Cyrillic .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia as-Sa'ūdiyyah Arabic .sa No
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia srb Cyrillic .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Xīnjiāpō Both Traditional and Simplified Chinese .sg No
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Cinkappūr Tamil .sg No
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Han-guk Hangul .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Lanka Sinhalese .lk Partial[12]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Ilangai Tamil .lk Partial[12]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Sudan Arabic Not delegated .sd No
xn--mgbtf8fl سوريا.  Syria Sūryā Arabic .sy No
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Táiwān Simplified Chinese .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Táiwān Traditional Chinese .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai script .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Tūnis Arabic .tn No
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine ukr Cyrillic .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Imārāt Arabic .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen al Yemen Arabic Not delegated .ye No

Source:[69]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Test TLDs[edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains. These testing domains were abolished on 31 October 2013.[70] Each of these TLDs encoded a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[71][72]

Each of these domains contained only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language. These example.test sites were test wikis used by ICANN.

TLD Transliteration Language Script Link to test site
DNS name Script version
xn--kgbechtv إختبار ik͡htibār Arabic Arabic http://مثال.إختبار
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bba آزمایشی ậzmạy̰sẖy Persian Perso-Arabic http://مثال.آزمایشی
xn--0zwm56d 测试 cèshì Chinese Simplified Chinese http://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d 測試 cèshì Chinese Traditional Chinese http://例子.測試
xn--80akhbyknj4f испытание ispytánije Russian Cyrillic http://пример.испытание
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g परीक्षा parīkṣā Hindi Devanagari http://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlp δοκιμή dokimé Greek Greek http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a 테스트 teseuteu Korean Hangul http://실례.테스트
xn--deba0ad טעסט test Yiddish Hebrew http://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzah テスト tesuto Japanese Katakana[73] http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a பரிட்சை pariṭcai Tamil Tamil http://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IANA maintained list of top-level domains
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591: Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". IETF. 
  3. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". 
  4. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". 
  5. ^ "Rules for .au Domains". 
  6. ^ Domínios .br Registro.br
  7. ^ (May 9, 2005) for Portuguese (Brazilian) names: see Anúncio 04/05/2005
  8. ^ IDN – Internationalized Domain Names at nic.cz
  9. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 9780262632980 
  10. ^ Article 1.9 of Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (Recent Georgian version has some updates not causing this article)
  11. ^ Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year. Techinasia.com (2013-12-19). Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published.
  13. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional Practice Guide, Dublin: Law Society of Ireland, 2004, p. 23 
  15. ^ ICTA: ky Domain Policies
  16. ^ The Official .LA Registry
  17. ^ How can I get a .mo domain if I'm not in Macau?. Quora. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  18. ^ (Dutch) SIDN registreert 3.000.000ste .nl-domeinnaam (SIDN registers 3 millionth .nl domain name), Official website of SIDN
  19. ^ Delegation Record for .PS
  20. ^ Notícias. dns.pt (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  21. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". 
  22. ^ IANA Report – Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 (“Taiwan”) domains representing Taiwan, Province of China in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center).
  23. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY". 
  24. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/bike-external.pdf
  25. ^ http://dotblue.blue/why-blue
  26. ^ Build. Dotbuild.co. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  27. ^ YourName.CEO. Nic.ceo. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  28. ^ DotClub FAQ - DotClub. Nic.club. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  29. ^ ICANN Wiki. ICANNwiki.com. Retrieved on 2014-07-24.
  30. ^ IANA — Repository of IDN Practices. Iana.org. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  31. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/guru-external.pdf
  32. ^ http://nic.ink/the-tld/
  33. ^ link Official - Uniregistry. Nic.link. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  34. ^ http://nic.moe/en/
  35. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies: Criteria for Registration". E17. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  36. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies:TLD String". E2. Retrieved 2013-01-01. "Only ASCII characters will be used" 
  37. ^ https://manage.centralnic.com/support/idn_tables/rest
  38. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/support-external.pdf
  39. ^ Telnic. "IDN.tel". Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  40. ^ About Zodiac. Zodiac Holdings Limited. Retrieved on 2014-08-16.
  41. ^ Weirdest new gTLD launch yet? .wed launches with a single registrar | DomainIncite - Domain Name News & Opinion. DomainIncite. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  42. ^ WED Third Level Extensions - Atgron, Inc Introduces .WED. A New Top Level Domain for Your Wedding. Atgron.wed. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  43. ^ https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/rsep-2014-02-19-en
  44. ^ a b c d e f Delegated Strings | ICANN New gTLDs. Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved on 2014-08-14.
  45. ^ Google Registry – Google. Google.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  46. ^ a b Chinese government buys 20,000 new IDN domain names | Domain Name Wire | Domain Name News & Views. Domain Name Wire. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  47. ^ (German) berlin Top-Level-Domain. Nic.berlin. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  48. ^ (Catalan) Fundació punt CAT | A Internet, el català és .cat. Registra ara un domini i identifica’t amb el teu .cat. Fundacio.cat. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  49. ^ Dominio .gal. Dominio .gal. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  50. ^ About – Dot Kiwi (.kiwi). Hello.kiwi. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  51. ^ http://nic.london
  52. ^ http://hello.nagoya/
  53. ^ http://www.nic.nyc
  54. ^ http://www.mondomaine.paris
  55. ^ http://registre.quebec/
  56. ^ [4]. Retrieved on 2014-07-21.
  57. ^ [5]. Retrieved on 2014-07-21.
  58. ^ http://www.domains.axa/
  59. ^ http://www.nic.bmw/
  60. ^ http://www.nic.citic/
  61. ^ http://www.nic.mini/
  62. ^ http://nic.monash/
  63. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/sites/default/files/ier/hu62oef5uc0u8riu78usp26r/ie-1-1153-75618-en.pdf
  64. ^ http://www.nic.neustar/
  65. ^ http://nic.yandex/
  66. ^ http://www.nic.中信
  67. ^ دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية
  68. ^ IDN ccTLD Fast Track String Evaluation Completion, ICANN
  69. ^ ICANN announcement
  70. ^ IDNwiki, IDN TLD evaluation gateway
  71. ^ My Name, My Language, My Internet: IDN Test Goes Live, 15 October 2007
  72. ^ http://例え.テスト, the domain of test page, contains also Kanji (Chinese character in Japanese () and Hiragana (). See also Japanese writing system.

External links[edit]