.com

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This article is about the generic top-level domain .com. For the file format, see COM file. For other uses, see com (disambiguation).
.com
.com
Introduced 1985
Registry Verisign
Sponsor None
Intended use Commercial entities (worldwide)
Actual use Used for virtually any commercial or non-commercial website and is generally accepted as the standard for TLDs
Registration restrictions None
Structure Registrations at second level permitted
Documents RFC 920; RFC 1591; ICANN registry agreement
Dispute policies UDRP
Website Verisign COM NET Registry
DNSSEC yes

The domain name com is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet. Its name is derived from the word commercial,[1] indicating its original intended purpose for domains registered by commercial organizations. However, eventually the distinction was lost when .com, .org and .net were opened for unrestricted registration.

The domain was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense, but is today operated by Verisign, and remains under ultimate jurisdiction of U.S. law.[2][3][4] Verisign Registrations in com are processed via registrars accredited by ICANN. The registry accepts internationalized domain names.

The domain was one of the original top-level domains (TLDs) in the Internet when the Domain Name System was implemented in January 1985, the others being edu, gov, mil, net, org, and arpa. It has grown into the largest top-level domain.[5]

History[edit]

The domain COM was as one of the first set of top-level domains when the Domain Name System was first implemented for use on the Internet in January 1985. The domain was administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), however the department contracted the domain maintenance to SRI International. SRI created DDN-NIC, also known as SRI-NIC, or simply the NIC (Network Information Center),[6] then accessible online with the domain name nic.ddn.mil. Beginning October 1, 1991, an operations contract was awarded to Government Systems Inc. (GSI), which sub-contracted it to Network Solutions Inc. (NSI).[7]

On January 1, 1993 the National Science Foundation assumed responsibility of maintenance, as com was primarily being used for non-defense interests. The NSF contracted operation to Network Solutions (NSI). In 1995, the NSF authorized NSI to begin charging registrants an annual fee, for the first-time since the domain's inception. Initially the fee was US$50 per year, with US$35 going to NSI, and US$15 going to a government fund. New registrations had to pay for the first two years, making the new-domain registration fee US$100. In 1997 the United States Department of Commerce assumed authority over all generic TLDs. It is currently operated by VeriSign, which had acquired Network Solutions. VeriSign later spun off Network Solutions' non-registry functions into a separate company which continues as a registrar. In the English language the domain is often spelled with a leading period and commonly pronounced as dot-com, and has entered common parlance this way.

Although com domains were originally intended to designate commercial entities[8] (others such as government agencies or educational institutions have different top-level domains assigned to them), there has been no restriction on who can register com domains since the mid-1990s. With the commercialization and popularization of the Internet, the com domain was opened to the public and quickly became the most common top-level domain for websites, email, and networking. Many companies that flourished in the period from 1997 to 2001 (the time known as the "dot-com bubble") incorporated the com suffix into company names; these became known as dot-coms or dot-com companies. The introduction of biz in 2001, which is restricted to businesses, has had no impact on the popularity of com.[citation needed]

Although companies anywhere in the world can register com domains, many countries have a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their own country code top-level domain (ccTLD). Such second-level domains are usually of the form com.xx or co.xx, where xx is the ccTLD. Australia (com.au), Sri Lanka (com.lk), Greece (com.gr), Mexico (com.mx), South Korea (co.kr), India (co.in), Indonesia (co.id), China (com.cn), Japan (co.jp), and the United Kingdom (co.uk) are all examples.

Many non-commercial sites and networks use com names to benefit from the perceived recognizability of a com domain. However, the registration statistics[5] show varying popularity over the years.[citation needed]

As of December, 2011, VeriSign reported that approximately 100 million com domains were registered.[9] As of March 2009, VeriSign reported that the domain is served by 926 accredited registrars.[9]

The U.S. Department of Commerce on November 29, 2012, approved renewal of the .com Registry Agreement between Verisign, Inc., and ICANN. Through this agreement, Verisign will manage the registry for the .com top level domain until November 30, 2018.[10]

Transfer procedures[edit]

Domains can be transferred between registrars. Prior to October 2006, the procedure used by Verisign was complex and unreliable – requiring a notary public to verify the identity of the registrant requesting a domain transfer. In October 2006, a new procedure, requiring the losing registrar to provide an authorization code on instruction from the registrant (also known as EPP code) was introduced by Verisign to reduce the incidence of domain hijacking.

List of oldest com domains[edit]

The following are the 100 oldest still-existing registered com domains:[11]

Rank Create date Domain name
1 March 15, 1985 symbolics.com
2 April 24, 1985 BBN.com
3 May 24, 1985 think.com
4 July 11, 1985 MCC.com
5 September 30, 1985 DEC.com
6 November 7, 1985 northrop.com
7 January 9, 1986 xerox.com
8 January 17, 1986 SRI.com
9 March 3, 1986 HP.com
10 March 5, 1986 bellcore.com
11 March 19, 1986 IBM.com
11 March 19, 1986 sun.com
13 March 25, 1986 intel.com
13 March 25, 1986 TI.com
15 April 25, 1986 ATT.com
16 May 8, 1986 GMR.com
16 May 8, 1986 tek.com
18 July 10, 1986 FMC.com
18 July 10, 1986 UB.com
20 August 5, 1986 bell-atl.com
20 August 5, 1986 GE.com
20 August 5, 1986 grebyn.com
20 August 5, 1986 ISC.com
20 August 5, 1986 NSC.com
20 August 5, 1986 stargate.com
26 September 2, 1986 boeing.com
27 September 18, 1986 ITCorp.com
28 September 29, 1986 siemens.com
29 October 18, 1986 pyramid.com
30 October 27, 1986 alphaDC.com
30 October 27, 1986 BDM.com
30 October 27, 1986 fluke.com
30 October 27, 1986 inmet.com
30 October 27, 1986 kesmai.com
30 October 27, 1986 mentor.com
30 October 27, 1986 NEC.com
30 October 27, 1986 ray.com
30 October 27, 1986 rosemount.com
30 October 27, 1986 vortex.com
40 November 5, 1986 alcoa.com
40 November 5, 1986 GTE.com
42 November 17, 1986 adobe.com
42 November 17, 1986 AMD.com
42 November 17, 1986 DAS.com
42 November 17, 1986 data-IO.com
42 November 17, 1986 octopus.com
42 November 17, 1986 portal.com
42 November 17, 1986 teltone.com
49 December 11, 1986 3Com.com
49 December 11, 1986 amdahl.com
Rank Create date Domain name
49 December 11, 1986 CCUR.com
49 December 11, 1986 CI.com
49 December 11, 1986 convergent.com
49 December 11, 1986 DG.com
49 December 11, 1986 peregrine.com
49 December 11, 1986 quad.com
49 December 11, 1986 SQ.com
49 December 11, 1986 tandy.com
49 December 11, 1986 TTI.com
49 December 11, 1986 unisys.com
61 January 19, 1987 CGI.com
61 January 19, 1987 CTS.com
61 January 19, 1987 SPDCC.com
64 February 19, 1987 apple.com
65 March 4, 1987 NMA.com
65 March 4, 1987 prime.com
67 April 4, 1987 philips.com
68 April 23, 1987 datacube.com
68 April 23, 1987 KAI.com
68 April 23, 1987 TIC.com
68 April 23, 1987 vine.com
72 April 30, 1987 NCR.com
73 May 14, 1987 cisco.com
73 May 14, 1987 RDL.com
75 May 20, 1987 SLB.com
76 May 27, 1987 parcplace.com
76 May 27, 1987 UTC.com
78 June 26, 1987 IDE.com
79 July 9, 1987 TRW.com
80 July 13, 1987 unipress.com
81 July 27, 1987 dupont.com
81 July 27, 1987 lockheed.com
83 July 28, 1987 rosetta.com
84 August 18, 1987 toad.com
85 August 31, 1987 quick.com
86 September 3, 1987 allied.com
86 September 3, 1987 DSC.com
86 September 3, 1987 SCO.com
89 September 22, 1987 gene.com
89 September 22, 1987 KCCS.com
89 September 22, 1987 spectra.com
89 September 22, 1987 WLK.com
93 September 30, 1987 mentat.com
94 October 14, 1987 WYSE.com
95 November 2, 1987 CFG.com
96 November 9, 1987 marble.com
97 November 16, 1987 cayman.com
97 November 16, 1987 entity.com
99 November 24, 1987 KSR.com
100 November 30, 1987 NYNEXST.com

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "RFC 920: Domain Requirements". October 1984. p. 2. "COM = Commercial, any commercial related domains meeting the second level requirements." 
  2. ^ "US shuts down Canadian gambling site". The Register. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  3. ^ "Les ".com" peuvent être saisis par les autorités américaines". PC World magazine. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "No need for SOPA, VeriSign seizes bodog.com for US authorities". TECHSPOT. 
  5. ^ a b "The Domain Industry Brief". 
  6. ^ Sitzler, Dana D.; Smith, Patricia G.; Marine, April N. (February 1992). "Building a Network Information Services Infrastructure". p. 3. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  7. ^ Richard Schmalgemeier (1991-09-25). "SRI-NIC services moving". Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  8. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591 Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". p. 2. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  9. ^ a b .com Monthly Transaction Report of December, 2011
  10. ^ http://www.ntia.doc.gov/press-release/2012/department-commerce-approves-verisign-icann-com-registry-renewal-agreement
  11. ^ "100 oldest .com domains". iWhois.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 

External links[edit]