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Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-10-0 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, ten powered and coupled driving wheels on five axles, and no trailing wheels. The lack of leading and trailing wheels makes this arrangement unstable at speed, and is a type confined to fairly low-speed work, such as switching, transfer runs, slow-speed drag freight, or running over mountainous terrain. In the United Kingdom, this type is known as a decapod (a name which in the United States is applied to 2-10-0 types).
Other equivalent classifications are:
UIC classification: E (also known as German classification and Italian classification)
French classification: 050
Turkish classification: 55
Swiss classification: 5/5
In 1899 Karl Gölsdorf introduced his famous 180.00 class for the Austrian State Railway, an 0-10-0 for mountain regions that had a remarkably low weight per axle. It employed the Gölsdorf axle system and had the drive, unusually, on the fourth axle. The class existed both as simples and as two-cylinder compounds, and they later worked in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania and France.
Three 0-10-0s were owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The 0-10-0 type proved quite popular in Germany. Several types of freight tender locomotives of this arrangement were built between approximately 1905–1915 after which it was abandoned in favor of the 2-10-0. Subsequent German locomotives of this type were tank locomotives, including classes BR82, BR87, BR940, BR941, BR942-4, BR945-17, BR9419-21 and BR975.
Staatspoorwegen ter Sumatara’s Westkust (SSS) was first built railway line on the west coast of Sumatra in 1887 until 1896. ii railroad used to haul products Ombilin coal mines to the port of Padang, the Gulf Bayur. But we realize that increasing coal production Ombilin make the old locomotives are inadequate, especially for the hilly route. So locomotives are brought greater. E1016 is a member of both the steam locomotive toothed to West Sumatra. After the arrival of three locomotive D18 series in 1913, came the locomotive E10 22 between 1921 until 1928, factory-made Esslingen, Germany, and SLM (Schweizerische Lokomotiv-und Maschinenfabrik) from Switzerland. Lokomotive E10 used in jagged lines in West Sumatra, between Kayutanam until Batutabal, and between Padangpanjan-Bukittinggi-Payakumbuh. Severe terrain, with 8% incline securam requires locomotive with great power. E10 has a four-cylinder locomotive steam, with two special cylinder to drive the gears.
The class E10 0-10-0 tank locomotives for use on lines with rack sections consisted of 39 locomotives, with the first 22 being delivered in the 1920s and the last 7 being built in 1967 by Nippon Sharyo (the last steam locomotives built by that firm). The class was used in regular service until the mid-1980s. (Kautzor, 2010 Continental Ry. Jrnl. #163)
Four 4100 class 0-10-0Ts (numbered 4100 to 4103) built by Krauss-Maffei in Germany were imported to Japan in 1912. Based on this design, a total of 39 4110 Class 0-10-0T locomotives (numbered 4110 to 4148) were built in Japan in 1914 and 1917. The last members of the class were withdrawn from service on JNR in 1950, but some example were sold to private freight railways and remained in service as late as 1971. Four examples were sent to the Korean Peninsula in 1938, but their subsequent fate is unknown.
The 0-10-0 type was the principal standard freight locomotive in Russia and was manufactured in very large numbers. The E class freight locomotive was made up of several sub classes all developed from the same original basic machine. The classes included E, Em, Eg, Esh, Eu, and Er. A number of both the Em and Eg received condensing tenders for working in areas where water supplies were scarce, these then became Emk and Egk respectively. However, these locomotives were experimental and the condensing tender was mainly used on the 2-10-0 SO19-series locomotive. The E class was the largest single class of locomotive in the world with around 11,000 manufactured both in Russia and other countries such as Czechoslovakia, Germany, Sweden, Hungary and Poland. This class even far outnumbered the German DRB Class 52 2-10-0 Kriegslok. The class was eventually superseded by the SO class 2-10-0 (which can be considered a further development of the E class), the L class 2-10-0 and the FD class 2-10-2. Despite being superseded, it was not replaced, and the class was widely used until the end of steam in Russia.
R.O.C. (Taiwan) 
A steam locomotive of this form served the sole purpose of pushing passengers up to the highest (in terms of altitude) station, 勝興, in Taiwan.
United Kingdom 
Two 0-10-0s saw service on British railways; a suburban tank locomotive prototype built by James Holden for the Great Eastern Railway in 1902, called The Decapod, and a tender locomotive, No. 2290, built by the Midland Railway in 1919 specifically as a banker for the Lickey Incline.
United States 
The 0-10-0 was not very popular in the US and North America in general; probably less than fifty of this type were constructed. For switching work, large 0-8-0s were preferred, and if more than four driven axles were needed, the preference was for articulated locomotives, such as 0-6-6-0s and 0-8-8-0s. Out on the main line, a 2-10-0, with the added stability of its leading truck, or a 2-10-2 or 2-10-4 with room for larger fireboxes, were preferred.
The first 0-10-0 in the United States was built to provide service on Madison Hill, which, at 5.89%, was the steepest standard gauge grade in the country. It was designed in 1868 by Reuben Wells for the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad and named for its designer. It is on display at the Children's Museum of Indianapolis. It is 35 feet (11 m) long and weighs 55 tons.
Later 0-10-0s were delivered in 1891 to the St. Clair Tunnel Company to haul trains between Sarnia, Ontario and Port Huron, Michigan. Next were a series of 21 locomotives for New York Central Railroad and its subsidiaries for hump yard work. Others included seven owned by Illinois Central Railroad, fifteen by Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, two by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and four, the heaviest built, for Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway.
- Inoue, Kōichi (1999). 国鉄機関車辞典 (JNR Locomotive Encyclopedia). Japan: Sankaido. p. 18. ISBN 4-381-10338-6.
- White, John H., Jr. (1972). Early Locomotives. New York: Dover. p. 29. ISBN 0-486-22772-3.
- "All Aboard!". The Children's Museum of Indianapolis. Archived from the original on 05 February 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.