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For other uses, see 0S (disambiguation).
- This article is about the first "decade" of the AD/CE time system (AD 1–9). For the first decade of each century, sometimes referred to as "the 0s", see years 0–9 for the respective centuries, e.g. 1900–1909 or 2000–2009 etc.
|Centuries:||1st century BC – 1st century – 2nd century|
|Decades:||20s BC 10s BC 0s BC – 0s – 10s 20s 30s|
|Years:||1 AD 2 AD 3 AD 4 AD 5 AD 6 AD 7 AD 8 AD 9 AD|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 0s, ordered by year.
- Tiberius, under order of Augustus, quells revolts in Germania (1–5).
- Gaius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Paullus are appointed consuls.
- Gaius Caesar marries Livilla, daughter of Antonia Minor and Nero Claudius Drusus, in an effort to gain prestige.
- Quirinius becomes a chief advisor to Gaius in Armenia. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose father Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus had served as consul in 16 BCE, also serves in the Armenia campaigns.
- Areius Paianeius becomes Archon of Athens.
- The Yuanshi era of the Chinese Han dynasty begins.
- Confucius is given his first royal title (posthumous name) of Lord Baochengxun Ni.
- Emperor Ping of Han China begins his reign and Wang Mang is re-instated as regent by Grand Empress Dowager Wang.
- Sapadbizes, Yuezhi prince and King of Kush (Bactria), dies. Heraios succeeds him as king.
- The Kingdom of Aksum, centered in modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea, is founded (approximate date).
- Amanishakheto, Queen of Kush (Nubia), dies. Her son, Natakamani, becomes King of Kush.
- Moxos ceases to be a significant religious area in South America (approximate date).
- The Teotihuacan culture in Mesoamerica begins (approximate date).
- The Maya practice sacrifice and mutilation.
- The Olmec 2 phase of the Olmec civilization begins; San Lorenzo and La Venta grow in population.*
Arts and sciences
- The poem Metamorphoses is written by Ovid.
- Livy continues writing his monumental History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita).
- Birth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Despite this, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
- Following the death of Lucius Caesar, Livia Drusilla persuades Augustus to allow her son Tiberius back into Rome as a private citizen, after six years in enforced retirement on Rhodes.
- Gaius Caesar meets with Phraates V, the king of Parthia on the Euphrates. Rather than invade, Gaius Caesar concludes peace with the Parthians—Parthia recognizes Roman claims to Armenia.
- Publius Alfenus Varus and Publius Vinicius become Roman Consuls.
- Cedeides becomes Archon of Athens.
- Juba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and falls for her.
- Wang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
- The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.
- The Chinese census shows nearly one million people living in Vietnam.
- The rule of emperor Augustus is renewed for a ten-year period.
- Augustus adopts his grandson, Gaius Caesar, with the expectation that he will succeed him. Gaius is made proconsul and is sent on a special mission to the East.
- Lucius Aelius Lamia and Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus are consuls of Rome.
- Menneas becomes Archon of Athens.
- Five German tribes are unified by Marbod, King of the Marcomanni. The unification of the five tribes represents a direct threat to Rome in the area that will become Silesia and Saxony.
- King Yuri of Goguryeo moved the capital from Jolbon Fortress to Gungnae Fortress.
- Wang Mang foils a plot by his son, Wang Yu, his brother-in-law, Lu Kuan, and the Wei clan to oust him from the regent's position. Wang Yu and Lu Kuan are killed in the purge that follows.
- Emperor Caesar Augustus summons Tiberius to Rome, and names him his heir and future emperor. At the same time, Agrippa Postumus, the last son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, is also adopted and named as Augustus' heir.
- Tiberius also adopts Germanicus as his own heir.
- Sextus Aelius Catus becomes consul.
- The Lex Aelia Sentia regulates the manumission of slaves.
- A pact of non-aggression and friendship is signed between the Roman Empire, represented by Tiberius, and the German tribe the Cherusci, represented by their King Segimer. Arminius and Flavus, sons of Segimer, are brought into the Roman army as leaders of the auxiliary troops.
- Julia the Elder returns from exile to live in Rhegium in disgrace.
- Augustus pardons Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus, along with Aemilia Lepida, the granddaughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, for alleged involvement in a conspiracy against the emperor.
- Marcus Plautius Silvanus is appointed as proconsul of Asia.
- Polianus Maradonius becomes Archon of Athens.
- King Phraataces and Queen Musa of Parthia are overthrown and killed, the crown being offered to Orodes III of Parthia—the beginning of the interregnum.
- Emperor Ping of Han marries Empress Wang (Ping), daughter of Wang Mang, cementing his influence.
- Wang Mang is given the title "superior duke".
Arts and sciences
- Nicolaus of Damascus writes the 15 volume History of the World.
- Rome acknowledges Cunobelinus, King of the Catuvellauni, as King of Britain.
- The Germanic Tribes of Cimbri and Charydes send ambassadors to Rome.
- Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus and Lucius Valerius Messalla Volesus (or Gaius Ateius Capito) become Roman consuls.
- Tiberius conquers Germania Inferior.
- Agrippina the Elder marries Germanicus, her second cousin.
- Livilla marries Drusus Julius Caesar, Tiberius's son.
- Polycharmus Azenius becomes Archon of Athens.
- Wang Mang, the power behind the throne, is granted the "Nine Awards of Imperial Favor" — a set of ceremonial robes, sceptres, weapons and privileges bestowed only on those in the most intimate relationship with the emperor. This is a further sign of the rising power of Wang Mang.
- Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, is deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.
- Iudaea and Moesia become Roman provinces destroying the Dardani; Syria is guarded by legions X Fretensis, III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and XII Fulminata.
- Emperor Augustus sets up a special treasury, the aerarium militare (170 million sestertii), to pay bonuses to retiring legion veterans.
- Tiberius makes Carnuntum his base of operations against Maroboduus; The Roman legion XX Valeria Victrix fights with Tiberius against the Marcomanni.
- The Illyrian tribes in Dalmatia and Pannonia start the Great Illyrian Revolt.
- The building of a Roman fort signifies the origin of the city of Wiesbaden.
- Caecina Severus is made governor of Moesia.
- Publius Sulpicius Quirinius becomes Governor of Syria and nominally of Judea.
- Quirinius conducts a census in Judea (according to Josephus), which results in a revolt in the province, led by Judas the Galilean, and supported by the Pharisee Zadok. The revolt is repressed, and the rebels are crucified, but it results in the birth of the Zealot movement, the members of which regard the God of Judaism as their only master.
- Due to a food shortage in Rome, Augustus doubles the grain rations distributed to the people.
- Due to a catastrophic fire in Rome, the barracks system is created to allow quicker response in the case of emergencies.
- Augustus banishes Agrippa Postumus, one of his adopted sons, to the island of Planasia.
- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius become Roman consuls.
- Theophilus becomes Archon of Athens. There are no further records of Archons until after 23.
- January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.
- February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, the Ruzi Ying, age 2, starting the Jushe era of the Han Dynasty.
- Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
- The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.
- Illyrian tribes in Pannonia and Dalmatia continue the Great Illyrian Revolt against Roman rule.
- Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus dismisses the Judean ethnarch Herod Archelaus.
- Publius Quinctilius Varus is appointed governor of Germania.
- Tiberius Quinctilius Varus, legate, is charged with organizing Germania between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. He carries out a census, devises tributes and recruits soldiers, all of which create dissension among the Germanic tribes.
- Abgarus of Edessa is deposed as king of Osroene.
- Construction of the Temple of Concord begins.
- Vonones I becomes ruler of Parthia.
- Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
- Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. The Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
- August 3 – Roman general Tiberius defeats the Illyrians in Dalmatia on the River Bathinus, but the Great Illyrian Revolt continues.
- Vipsania Julia is exiled. Lucius Aemilius Paullus and his family are disgraced. Augustus breaks off the engagement of Claudius to Paullus' daughter Aemilia Lepida. An effort is made to betrothe Claudius to Livia Medullina.
- Marcus Furius Camillus, Sextus Nonius Quinctilianus, and Lucius Apronius become Roman consuls.
- Roman poet Ovid is banished from Rome and exiled to the Black Sea near Tomis (present-day Constanța).
- Start of Chushi era of the Chinese Han dynasty.
- In China, Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin dynasty.
- After completing Metamorphoses, Ovid begins the Fasti (Festivals), 6 books that detail the first 6 months of the year and provide valuable insights into the Roman Calendar.
- Empress Wang is given the title of Duchess Dowager of Ding'an, while Emperor Ruzi of Han, the former Emperor of Han becomes the Duke of Ding'an. Ruzi Ying is placed under house arrest.
- Lui Kuai, Marquess of Zuziang, attacks the Dukedom of Fuchong under his brother Liu Ying. Lui Kuai is defeated and killed in the ensuing battle.
- January 10 – Wang Mang founds the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China (until 25). Wang Mang names his wife Empress Wang (Xin Dynasty) and his son Wang Lin Crown Prince and heir to the throne.
- Claudius marries Plautia Urgulanilla following the death of Livia Medullina.
- Illyria is turned into a province after the Great Illyrian Revolt is defeated.
- The Rhine River is established as the boundary between the Latin and German speaking worlds, following the defeat of the Roman army, under the command of Varus, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
- Legio II Augusta, XX Valeria Victrix, and XIII Gemina move to Germany to replace Legio XIX and the others destroyed at Teutoburg.
- Ovid is banished to Tomis.
- Pannonia (modern-day Hungary) submits to Roman rule.
- In order to increase the number of marriages, and ultimately the population, the Lex Papia Poppaea is adopted in Italy. This law prohibits celibacy and childless relationships.
- Roman finances become strained following the Danubian insurrection and Varus' defeat in Germany, where three Roman legions were destroyed. This results in the levying of two new taxes: five percent of inheritances, and one percent on sales.
- The Catuvellauni attack the Trinovantes and capture Camulodunum.
- Erato, Artaxiad Dynasty Queen of Armenia, 8–5 BC, 2 BC – 2 AD, 6–11
- Ariobarzan of Atropatene, Client King of Armenia, r. 1 BC – 2 AD
- Artavazd V, Client King of Armenia, r. 2–11
- Tigranes V, Artaxiad Dynasty King of Armenia, r. 2–6
- Ping Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 1 BC – 5 AD
- Ruzi Ying, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 6–9
- Wang Mang, Usurper Emperor of the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China r. 9–23
- Antiochus III, King of Commagene, r. 12 BC – 17 AD
- Arminius, German war chief
- Arshak II, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 20 BC-1 AD
- Pharasmanes I, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 1-58
- Strato II and Strato III, co-kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, r. 25 BC – 10 AD
- Crimthann Nia Náir, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 8 BC – 9 AD
- Cairbre Cinnchait, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 9–14
- Suinin, Legendary Emperor of Japan, r. 29 BC – 70 AD
- Natakamani, King of Kush, r. (1 BC – AD 20)
- Abgar V of Edessa, King of Osroene, 4 BC–AD 7, 13–50
- Ma'nu IV, King of Osroene, 7–13
- Phraates V, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
- Musa of Parthia, mother and co-ruler with Phraates V, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
- Orodes III, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 4–6
- Vonones I, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 8–12
- Artabanus of Parthia, pretender to the Parthian throne and future King of Parthia
- Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC – 14 AD)
- Gaius Caesar, Roman general
- Livy, Roman historian
- Ovid, Roman poet
- Quirinius, Roman nobleman and politician
- Hillel the Elder, Jewish scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in office c. 31 BC – 9 AD
- Shammai, Jewish scholar and Av Beit Din of the Sanhedrin, in office 20 BC – 20 AD
- Tiberius, Roman general, statesman, and future emperor
- Hyeokgeose, King of Silla, r. 57 BC – 4 AD
- Namhae, King of Silla, r. 4–24
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 0s.|
- Georges Declercq, Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2000), pp.143–147.
- G. Declercq, "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era", Sacris Erudiri 41 (2002) 165–246, pp.242–246. Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini.
- James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans Publishing (2003), page 324.
- Klingaman, William K., The First Century: Emperors, Gods and Everyman, 1990, p 56
- Klingaman, William K., The First Century: Emperors, Gods and Everyman, 1990, p 67