2-10-4

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Front of locomotive to the left
ATSF 5000 Class Texas type

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, a 2-10-4 locomotive has two leading wheels, ten driving wheels (in other words, five driven axles), and four trailing wheels. These were referred to as the Texas type in most of the United States, the Colorado type on the Burlington Route and the Selkirk type in Canada.

Other equivalent classifications are:

Overview[edit]

The 2-10-4 originated and was principally used in the United States. The evolution of this locomotive type began as a 2-10-2 "Santa Fe" type with a larger four wheeled trailing truck that would allow an enlarged firebox. A subsequent development was as an elongated 2-8-4 "Berkshire" type that required extra driving wheels to remain within axle load limits. Examples of both of these evolutionary progressions can be found.[1]

Some 2-10-4 tank locomotives also existed in eastern Europe. One bizarre experimental 2-10-4, built in the Soviet Union, had an opposed piston drive system.

Usage[edit]

Belgian Congo[edit]

No. 801 dumped at Lubumbashi

The Texas type was rare in Africa. One locomotive, numbered 801, was built for the CF du Bas-Congo au Katanga by Société Anonyme John Cockerill in 1939. It had 540 by 550 millimetres (21 by 22 inches) cylinders and 1,100 millimetres (43 inches) diameter driving wheels, with a working order mass of 107.8 tonnes (106.1 long tons; 118.8 short tons), a grate area of 5.4 square metres (58 square feet) and a tractive effort at 65% boiler pressure of 14,690 kilograms-force (144,100 newtons; 32,400 pounds-force). The locomotive is believed to have been built for the line between Bukama and Kamina and accumulated 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 miles) during its service lifetime. Even with its large size, it was hand-fired and had two firebox doors, with two firemen being carried.[2]

Brazil[edit]

Outside North America, the 2-10-4 was rare. The Central Railway of Brazil, however, ordered seventeen narrow gauge (metre gauge) 2-10-4 locomotives, ten from Baldwin which were delivered in 1940, and another seven from the American Locomotive Company which were delivered in 1947.[citation needed]

South Africa[edit]

SAR Class 21 2-10-4
In 1937 the South African Railways (SAR) placed one Class 21 steam locomotive with a Texas wheel arrangement in service, designed as a mixed traffic locomotive suitable for light rail. It was designed by A.G. Watson, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the SAR from 1929 to 1936, and built by the North British Locomotive Company in Glasgow. Only the one locomotive was built, at the time representing the maximum power obtainable on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) from a ten-coupled non-articulated locomotive that was limited to a 15 long tons (15.2 tonnes) axle load on 60 pounds per yard (30 kilograms per metre) rail. To enable it to negotiate tight curves, the third and fourth sets of driving wheels were flangeless.[3][4][5][6]

The tender was an unusual experimental type using six pairs of wheels in a 2-8-2 wheel arrangement, with the leading and trailing wheels in bissel type pony trucks and the rest of the axles mounted with a rigid wheelbase. The tender’s wheel arrangement did not prove to be very successful and, except for a similar tender built in the Salt River shops in Cape Town for test purposes, was not used again.[3][6]

A simultaneously proposed heavier main line version Class 22 2-10-4 locomotive never materialised.[3][6]

United States of America[edit]

Santa Fe[edit]

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway (ATSF) took delivery of locomotive no. 3829 from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1919. It was used by Santa Fe as an experimental locomotive and was rostered as a member of ATSF’s 3800 class of 2-10-2s that was fitted with a four wheel trailing truck. Nearly a hundred more 3800 class locomotives were delivered after no. 3829, but all with the 2-10-2 wheel arrangement. Photographs exist that show no. 3829 fitted with at least two different designs of four wheel trailing truck through the years. No other members of the 3800 class have been documented with four wheel trailing trucks. No. 3829 was scrapped in 1955, still equipped with a four wheel trailing truck.[7]

ATSF 2-10-4 No. 5000 Madame Queen
Santa Fe, who had originated the 2-10-4 type, adopted it again in 1930 with no. 5000, nicknamed "Madame Queen". This locomotive was similar to the C&O T-1, with the same 69 inches (1,753 millimetres) drivers but with 300 pounds per square inch (2.07 megapascals) boiler pressure and 60% limited cutoff. It proved the viability of the type on the Santa Fe railway, but the Great Depression shelved plans to acquire more.

In 1938, with the railroad's fortunes improving, Santa Fe acquired ten more 2-10-4 locomotives. These came with 74 inches (1,880 millimetres) drivers and 310 pounds per square inch (2.14 megapascals) boiler pressure, making these ATSF 2-10-4s the fastest and most modern of all.

Of the original order of ten, five were oil-burning and five coal-burning, but when Santa Fe ordered twenty-five more for delivery in 1944, all were delivered equipped to burn oil. The first of the 1944 batch produced 5600 drawbar horsepower on road test, the highest figure known for a two-cylinder steam locomotive.

Texas and Pacific[edit]

The 2-10-4 type was revived in 1925 by the Lima Locomotive Works. This time it was an expansion of the 2-8-4 "Berkshire" type that Lima had pioneered. A version of the Berkshire with ten driving wheels instead of eight was an obvious development and the first to be delivered were to the Texas and Pacific Railway, after which the type was subsequently named. The four-wheel trailing truck allowed a much larger firebox and thus a greater ability to generate heat, and thus steam. The Superpower design, as Lima's marketing department called it, resulted in a locomotive that could develop great power at speed while not running out of steam-generating ability.

Chesapeake & Ohio[edit]

The early Lima built Texas types were low-drivered, 60 to 64 inches (1,524 to 1,626 millimetres) in diameter, which did not leave enough space to fully counterweight the extremely heavy and sturdy side rods and main rods required for such a powerful locomotive's piston thrusts. That changed with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) in 1930, who stretched the design of an Erie Railroad high-drivered Berkshire type locomotive to produce forty of the C&O T-1, a Texas type with 69 inches (1,753 millimetres) drivers that was both powerful and fast enough for the new higher-speed freight services that the railroads were introducing. All subsequent Texas types were of this higher-drivered sort.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) ordered few new locomotives after 1930, since electrification both consumed the railroad's resources and resulted in a supply of excess steam locomotives that eliminated any requirement for new power. It was not until World War II had begun that the PRR's locomotive fleet began to appear inadequate. Although the PRR urgently needed new and modern freight power, the War Production Board prohibited working on a new design, and since there was not enough time to trial a prototype in any event, the PRR cast around for other railroads' designs that it might modify for PRR use.

It settled on the C&O T-1. Some modifications were made to the design for these PRR "War Babies". These included PRR drop-couplers, sheet steel pilots, PRR style cabs, large PRR tenders, Keystone number plates up front, and other modifications. It still betrayed its foreign heritage by lacking the PRR trademark Belpaire firebox and by having a booster engine on the trailing truck. 125 locomotives were built between 1942 and 1944 and became the largest fleet of Texas type locomotives in existence. All were eventually sold as scrap as the Pennsylvania Railroad dieselized.[8][9][10]

North American owners of Texas types[edit]

2-10-4 North American construction roster
Railroad (quantity; class name) Class Road numbers Builder Build year Notes
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe
(37; Texas)
3800
3829
Baldwin
1919
5000
5000
Baldwin
1930
preserved
5001
5001–5010
Baldwin
1938
5011
5011–5035
Baldwin
1944
5011, 5017, 5021 & 5030 preserved
Bessemer & Lake Erie
(47; Texas)

18 of the B&LE's 2-10-4 locomotives
were sold to the Duluth, Missabe
& Iron Range
(DMIR), who retained
the "Texas" class name on these
locomotives
H1A
601
Baldwin
1929
H1
602–610
Baldwin
1930
H1
611–620
Baldwin
1936
H1
621–630
ALCO
1937
H1
631–635
Baldwin
1941
H1
636–637
Baldwin
1942
H1
638–642
Baldwin
1943
H1G
643–647
Baldwin
1944
643 preserved
Canadian Pacific
(37; Selkirk)
T1a
5900–5919
MLW
1929
T4a
8000
CP Angus Shops
1931
T1b
5920–5929
MLW
1938
Streamlined
T1c
5930–5935
MLW
1949
Streamlined. 5931 & 5935 preserved
Central Vermont
(10; Texas)
T-3-a
700–709
ALCO
1928
Chesapeake and Ohio
(40; Texas)
T-1
3000–3039
Lima
1930
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
(18; Colorado)
M-4
6310–6321
Baldwin
1927
6322–6327
Baldwin
1929
Chicago Great Western
(36; Texas)
T-1
850–864
880–882
Lima
1930
T-2
865–873
Baldwin
1930
T-3
874–879
Baldwin
1930
T-3
883–885
Lima
1931
Kansas City Southern
(10; Texas)
900–909
Lima
1937
Pennsylvania Railroad
(125; Texas)
J1
6450–6474
PRR Altoona Works
1942
6401–6434
6475–6500
PRR Altoona Works
1943
6435–6449
6150–6174
PRR Altoona Shops
1944
Texas & Pacific
(70; Texas)
I-1
600–609
Lima
1925
I-1a
610–624
Lima
1927
610 preserved
I-1b
625–639
Lima
1928
I-1c
640–654
Lima
1928
I-1d
655–669
Lima
1929

Preserved Texas types in North America[edit]

Railroad Road number Location
AT&SF
5000
Amarillo, TX
5011
Museum of Transportation, St. Louis, MO
5017
National Railroad Museum, Green Bay, WI
5021
California State Railroad Museum, Sacramento, CA
5030
Salvador Perez Park, Santa Fe, NM
B&LE
643
McKees Rocks, PA
CP
5931
Heritage Park Historical Village, Calgary, AB
5935
Canadian Railway Museum, Delson, QC
T&P
610
Texas State Railroad, Palestine, TX

References[edit]

 
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  1. ^ Barris, W., The Texas Type Locomotive. Retrieved January 1, 2003
  2. ^ Blanchart, De Deurwaerder, Nève, Robeyns & Van Bost (1999). Le Rail au Congo Belge, Tome II, 1920-1945. Brussels: G Blanchart & Cie. pp 294-295, 417. ISBN 2-87202-015-2.
  3. ^ a b c Holland, D.F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8. 
  4. ^ North British Locomotive Company works list, compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Bernhard Schmeiser
  5. ^ South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2’0” & 3’6” Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, as amended
  6. ^ a b c Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 74–75. ISBN 0869772112. 
  7. ^ Worley, E. D. (1965). Iron Horses of the Santa Fe Trail. Southwest Railroad Historical Society. p. 340. LOC 75-39813
  8. ^ Carlson, Neil. (2010). "Toward the 2-10-4". Classic Trains Magazine (Fall 2010) (Kalmbach) 11 (3). 
  9. ^ Farrell, Jack W. (1989). North American steam locomotives: The Berkshire and Texas types. Pacific Fast Mail, Edmonds, WA. ISBN 0-915713-15-2. 
  10. ^ Westcott, Lynn. Ed. (1980). Model Railroader Cyclopedia Volume 1: Steam Locomotives. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-001-9.