10-second barrier

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The 10-second barrier is a term used in track and field athletics, which refers to the physical and psychological barrier of completing the men's 100 metres sprint in under ten seconds. The achievement was traditionally regarded as the hallmark of a world-class sprinter. Its significance has become less important since the late 1990s, as an increasing number of runners have surpassed the ten seconds mark.[1]

History[edit]

For sprints, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) rules for world records and other recognised performances require: a wind assistance of not more than two metres per second in the direction of travel; fully automatic timing (FAT) to one hundredth of a second; and no use of performance enhancing substances.[5] Wind gauge malfunctions or infractions may also cause a sprinter's run to be invalid.[6]

Hand timing[edit]

Prior to 1977, FAT was not required for IAAF official timings.[2] These were recorded manually to one tenth of a second; three official timers with stopwatches noted when the starting gun flashed and when the runner crossed the finish line, and their median recorded time was the official mark. Some races also had an unofficial FAT, or semi-automatic time, often in conjunction with photo finish equipment. The first person timed at under ten seconds was Bob Hayes, who ran 9.9s in April 1963 at the Mt. SAC Relays with an illegal following wind of 11 mph (4.9 m/s).[3][4] Hayes clocked another illegal 9.9s (wind 5.3 m/s (12 mph)) in the semi-final of the 1964 Olympic 100 m, with the first sub-10 FAT of 9.91s.[5] At the 1968 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships in Sacramento, three men ran legal hand-timed 9.9 seconds: Jim Hines first and Ronnie Ray Smith second in the first semi-final, and Charlie Green first in the second semi-final.[2][6] This was dubbed the "Night of Speed", and all three were recognised as world records by the IAAF.[2] The IAAF lists their FATs as: Hines 10.03, Smith 10.14 and Green 10.10;[2] although Time magazine reported at the time that "an automatic Bulova Accutron Phototimer confirmed that all three had indeed broken [10.0s]".[7] Hines also had a wind-assisted 9.8s in the heats.[7] Hines went on to win the 1968 Olympic 100m in 9.9s manual; his FAT was 9.95, making it the first non-wind-assisted electronic sub-10-second performance.[2] By 1976, six other men had equalled the 9.9s hand-timed record, though none of their performances had an FAT mark.[2]

Automatic timing[edit]

Carl Lewis was the first man to run under ten seconds at low altitude.

After the 1977 rule change, Jim Hines' nine-year-old 9.95 was the only recognised sub-10-second race.[2] That year the barrier was broken again, when Silvio Leonard ran 9.98 seconds on 11 August 1977. Both of these marks were recorded at a high altitude, which aids performance due to lower air resistance. Carl Lewis was the first sprinter to break ten seconds at low altitude under electronic timing, with 9.97 seconds on 14 May 1983 at the Modesto Relays.

Calvin Smith recorded a world record 9.93 seconds on 3 July 1983, again at altitude in Colorado Springs, Colorado and also became the first sprinter to run under ten seconds twice, repeating the feat in August that year.

Six sprinters legally broke the barrier during the 1980s. Another, Ben Johnson, had eclipsed both the 9.90 mark and 9.80 mark in 1987 and 1988, however both of these records were disqualified after he tested positive for, and later admitted to using steroids.

The 100 m final at the 1991 World Championships represented a new zenith in the event: six athletes ran under ten seconds in the same race, and winner Carl Lewis lowered the world record to 9.86 seconds.[8]

Maurice Greene was the first athlete to run under 9.80 seconds in 1999. Usain Bolt surpassed 9.70 seconds in 2008 and 9.60 in 2009. The 10-second barrier has been broken by athletes from five of the six continental athletic associations, the exception being of South America where Brazilian Robson da Silva holds the area record with ten seconds flat.[9]

The 2008 season saw a new high for sub-10 second performances: 14 runners achieved the feat a total of 53 times between them, the highest ever for either figure. Furthermore, ten men had achieved the result for the first time in that year – another record. The men's 100 metres final at the 2008 Summer Olympics saw a world record and six men clear ten seconds (equalling the number from the 1991 World Championships). Only two months into the start of the outdoor track season, 2011 became a record-breaking year as fifteen men ran under ten seconds between April and June.[10] As of 10 June 2013, 86 sprinters have broken the 10-second barrier with an official, legal time. The men's 100 metres final at the 2012 Summer Olympics saw a new Olympic record and seven men dip below ten seconds, with only one competitor failing to do so.

On July 4, 2013, former World Champion Kim Collins improved his personal record by running 9.97 in Lausanne, surpassing Linford Christie as the oldest man to break the 10-second barrier. A week later he ran 9.99 in Budapest, increasing his standing to 37 years, 3 months and 5 days.[11]

No woman has recorded an official sub-10 second time. The female 100 metre world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

Electronically timed marks[edit]

Sprinters who have broken the 10-second barrier
# Date first broken Athlete Time
000(seconds)
Age Nationality Continent[1] Best (year)[2] Doping case Ref
1 14 October 1968 Hines, JimJim Hines 9.95 A[3] 22 years, 34 days  United States North America 9.95 (1968)
2 11 August 1977 Leonard, SilvioSilvio Leonard 9.98 A 21 years, 325 days  Cuba North America 9.98 (1977)
3 14 May 1983 Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis 9.97 21 years, 317 days  United States North America 9.86 (1991) Yes
4 3 July 1983 Smith, CalvinCalvin Smith 9.93 A 22 years, 176 days  United States North America 9.93 (1983)
5 5 May 1984 Lattany, MelMel Lattany 9.96 24 years, 269 days  United States North America 9.96 (1984)
6[5] 24 September 1988 Christie, LinfordLinford Christie 9.97 28 years, 175 days  United Kingdom Europe 9.87 (1993) Yes
7 20 May 1989 Stewart, RaymondRaymond Stewart 9.97 24 years, 63 days  Jamaica North America 9.96 (1991)
8 16 June 1989 Burrell, LeroyLeroy Burrell 9.94 22 years, 115 days  United States North America 9.85 (1994)
9 25 August 1991 Mitchell, DennisDennis Mitchell 9.99 25 years, 186 days  United States North America 9.91 (1991) Yes
10 25 August 1991 Fredericks, FrankieFrankie Fredericks 9.95 23 years, 327 days  Namibia Africa 9.86 (1996)
11 11 September 1991 Cason, AndreAndre Cason 9.99 22 years, 234 days  United States North America 9.92 (1993)
12 4 April 1992 Adeniken, OlapadeOlapade Adeniken 9.97 22 years, 229 days  Nigeria Africa 9.95 (1994)
13 18 April 1992 Marsh, MichaelMichael Marsh 9.93 24 years, 258 days  United States North America 9.93 (1992)
14 18 April 1992 Ezinwa, DavidsonDavidson Ezinwa 9.96 20 years, 148 days  Nigeria Africa 9.94 (1994) Yes
15 21 May 1993 Effiong, DanielDaniel Effiong 9.99 20 years, 338 days  Nigeria Africa 9.98 (1993) Yes
16 22 July 1994 Drummond, JonJon Drummond 9.99 25 years, 316 days  United States North America 9.92 (1997)
17 22 April 1995 Bailey, DonovanDonovan Bailey 9.99 27 years, 127 days  Canada North America 9.84 (1996)
18 15 June 1995 Surin, BrunyBruny Surin 9.97 27 years, 338 days  Canada North America 9.84 (1999)
19 21 April 1996 Boldon, AtoAto Boldon 9.93 22 years, 113 days  Trinidad and Tobago North America 9.86 (1998)
20 12 June 1997 Greene, MauriceMaurice Greene 9.96 22 years, 324 days  United States North America 9.79 (1999)
21 12 June 1997 Streete-Thompson, KareemKareem Streete-Thompson 9.96 24 years, 74 days  United States North America 9.96 (1997)
22 12 June 1997 Montgomery, TimTim Montgomery 9.96 22 years, 138 days  United States North America 9.92 (1997) Yes
23 20 June 1997 Spencer, PercivalPercival Spencer 9.98 22 years, 116 days  Jamaica North America 9.98 (1997)
24 13 July 1997 Ogunkoya, SeunSeun Ogunkoya 9.97 19 years, 197 days  Nigeria Africa 9.92 (1998)
25 9 August 1998 Henderson, VincentVincent Henderson 9.95 25 years, 293 days  United States North America 9.95 (1998)
26 11 September 1998 Thompson, ObadeleObadele Thompson 9.87 A 22 years, 165 days  Barbados North America 9.87 (1998)
27 5 June 1999 Myles-Mills, LeonardLeonard Myles-Mills 9.98 26 years, 27 days  Ghana Africa 9.98 (1999)
28 13 June 1999 Chambers, DwainDwain Chambers 9.99 21 years, 69 days  United Kingdom Europe 9.97 (1999) Yes
29 2 July 1999 Gardener, JasonJason Gardener 9.98 23 years, 287 days  United Kingdom Europe 9.98 (1999)
30 5 July 1999 Harden, TimTim Harden 9.92 25 years, 159 days  United States North America 9.92 (1999)
31 2 June 2000 Miller, CobyCoby Miller 9.98 23 years, 227 days  United States North America 9.98 (2000)
32 2 June 2000 Williams, BernardBernard Williams 9.99 22 years, 135 days  United States North America 9.94 (2001) Yes
33 21 June 2000 Obikwelu, FrancisFrancis Obikwelu 9.97 21 years, 212 days  Nigeria[4] Africa 9.86 (2004)
34 12 April 2002 Crawford, ShawnShawn Crawford 9.99 24 years, 88 days  United States North America 9.88 (2004) Yes
35 21 April 2002 Johnson, Joshua J.Joshua J. Johnson 9.95 25 years, 346 days  United States North America 9.95 (2002)
36 4 May 2002 Lewis, BrianBrian Lewis 9.99 27 years, 150 days  United States North America 9.99 (2002)
37 27 July 2002 Collins, KimKim Collins 9.98 26 years, 113 days  Saint Kitts and Nevis North America 9.97 (2013)
38 5 May 2003 Johnson, PatrickPatrick Johnson 9.93 30 years, 221 days  Australia Oceania 9.93 (2003)
39 19 July 2003 Aliu, DejiDeji Aliu 9.98 27 years, 239 days  Nigeria Africa 9.95 (2003)
40 15 August 2003 Capel, JohnJohn Capel 9.97 24 years, 261 days  United States North America 9.95 (2004) Yes
41 15 August 2003 Gatlin, JustinJustin Gatlin 9.97 21 years, 186 days  United States North America 9.79 (2012) Yes
42 15 August 2003 Grimes, MickeyMickey Grimes 9.99 26 years, 309 days  United States North America 9.99 (2003) Yes
43 12 October 2003 Emedolu, UchennaUchenna Emedolu 9.97 27 years, 25 days  Nigeria Africa 9.97 (2003)
44 12 June 2004 Powell, AsafaAsafa Powell 9.99 21 years, 202 days  Jamaica North America 9.72 (2010) Yes
45 14 June 2005 Zakari, AzizAziz Zakari 9.99 28 years, 285 days  Ghana Africa 9.99 (2005) Yes
46 25 June 2005 Burns, MarcMarc Burns 9.96 22 years, 169 days  Trinidad and Tobago North America 9.96 (2005)
47 25 June 2005 Brown, DarrelDarrel Brown 9.99 20 years, 257 days  Trinidad and Tobago North America 9.99 (2005)
48 5 July 2005 Pognon, RonaldRonald Pognon 9.99 22 years, 231 days  France Europe 9.99 (2005)
49 22 July 2005 Scott, LeonardLeonard Scott 9.94 25 years, 184 days  United States North America 9.91 (2006)
50 25 May 2006 Fasuba, OlusojiOlusoji Fasuba 9.93 21 years, 320 days  Nigeria Africa 9.85 (2006)
51 21 July 2006 Gay, TysonTyson Gay 9.97 23 years, 346 days  United States North America 9.69 (2009) Yes
52 18 August 2006 Brunson, MarcusMarcus Brunson 9.99 28 years, 116 days  United States North America 9.99 (2006)
53 24 April 2007 Atkins, DerrickDerrick Atkins 9.98 23 years, 109 days  Bahamas North America 9.91 (2007)
54 8 June 2007 Dix, WalterWalter Dix 9.93 21 years, 128 days  United States North America 9.88 (2010)
55 26 July 2007 Francis, SamuelSamuel Francis 9.99 20 years, 121 days  Qatar Asia 9.99 (2007)
56 28 September 2007 Spearmon, WallaceWallace Spearmon 9.96 22 years, 278 days  United States North America 9.96 (2007)
57 10 May 2008 Padgett, TravisTravis Padgett 9.96 21 years, 149 days  United States North America 9.89 (2008)
58 17 May 2008 Bolt, UsainUsain Bolt 9.76 21 years, 270 days  Jamaica North America 9.58 (2009) World Record
59 18 May 2008 Thompson, RichardRichard Thompson 9.93 22 years, 346 days  Trinidad and Tobago North America 9.85 (2011)
60 28 June 2008 Martin, RodneyRodney Martin 9.95 25 years, 189 days  United States North America 9.95 (2008) [12]
61 28 June 2008 Jelks, MarkMark Jelks 9.99 24 years, 79 days  United States North America 9.99 (2008) Yes [12]
62 28 June 2008 Patton, DarvisDarvis Patton 9.89 30 years, 207 days  United States North America 9.89 (2008) [12]
63 28 June 2008 Williams, IvoryIvory Williams 9.94 23 years, 57 days  United States North America 9.94 (2008) Yes [12]
64 22 July 2008 Carter, NestaNesta Carter 9.98 22 years, 285 days  Jamaica North America 9.78 (2010)
65 15 August 2008 Martina, ChurandyChurandy Martina 9.99 24 years, 43 days  Netherlands Antilles/ Netherlands North America/Europe 9.91 (2012)
66 16 August 2008 Frater, MichaelMichael Frater 9.97 25 years, 315 days  Jamaica North America 9.88 (2011)
67 24 May 2009 Bailey, DanielDaniel Bailey 9.99 22 years, 257 days  Antigua and Barbuda North America 9.91 (2009) [13]
68 7 June 2009 Rodgers, MikeMike Rodgers 9.94 24 years, 44 days  United States North America 9.85 (2011) Yes [14]
69 10 July 2009 Blake, YohanYohan Blake 9.96 19 years, 196 days  Jamaica North America 9.69 (2012) Yes [15][16]
70 28 August 2009 Clarke, LeroneLerone Clarke 9.99 28 years, 52 days  Jamaica North America 9.99 (2009)
71 9 July 2010 Lemaitre, ChristopheChristophe Lemaitre 9.98 20 years, 28 days  France Europe 9.92 (2011) [17]
72 19 August 2010 Kimmons, TrellTrell Kimmons 9.95 25 years, 37 days  United States North America 9.95 (2010) [18]
73 29 August 2010 Bailey, RyanRyan Bailey 9.95 21 years, 138 days  United States North America 9.88 (2010) [19]
74 29 August 2010 Forsythe, MarioMario Forsythe 9.99 24 years, 303 days  Jamaica North America 9.95 (2010) [19]
75[7] 16 April 2011 Mullings, SteveSteve Mullings 9.90 28 years, 139 days  Jamaica North America 9.80 (2011) Yes [20]
76 23 April 2011 Makusha, NgonidzasheNgonidzashe Makusha 9.97 24 years, 43 days  Zimbabwe Africa 9.89 (2011) [21]
77 4 June 2011 Ashmeade, NickelNickel Ashmeade 9.96 21 years, 58 days  Jamaica North America 9.90 (2013) [22]
78 4 June 2011 Bledman, KestonKeston Bledman 9.93 23 years, 88 days  Trinidad and Tobago North America 9.86 (2012) [23]
79 10 June 2011 Salaam, MookieMookie Salaam 9.97 21 years, 66 days  United States North America 9.97 (2011) [10]
80 30 June 2011 Ndure, Jaysuma SaidyJaysuma Saidy Ndure 9.99 26 years, 364 days  Norway Europe 9.95 (2014) [24]
81 6 June 2012 Adams, HarryHarry Adams 9.96 22 years, 192 days  United States North America 9.96 (2012) [25]
82 7 July 2012 Hyman, KemarKemar Hyman 9.95 22 years, 270 days  Cayman Islands North America 9.95 (2012) [26]
83 7 September 2012 Bailey-Cole, KemarKemar Bailey-Cole 9.97 20 years, 241 days  Jamaica North America 9.93 (2013)
84 23 May 2013 Young, IsiahIsiah Young 9.99 23 years, 138 days  United States North America 9.99 (2013)
85 5 June 2013 Locke, DentariusDentarius Locke 9.97 23 years, 175 days  United States North America 9.96 (2013) [27]
86 8 June 2013 Mvumvure, GabrielGabriel Mvumvure 9.98 25 years, 105 days  Zimbabwe Africa 9.98 (2013)
87 21 June 2013 Silmon, CharlesCharles Silmon 9.98 21 years, 352 days  United States North America 9.98 (2013)
88 13 July 2013 Dasaolu, JamesJames Dasaolu 9.91 25 years, 311 days  United Kingdom Europe 9.91 (2013)
89 13 July 2013 Vicaut, JimmyJimmy Vicaut 9.95 21 years, 136 days  France Europe 9.95 (2013)
90 12 April 2014 Magakwe, Simon Simon Magakwe 9.98 A 27 years, 333 days  South Africa Africa 9.98 (2014) [28]
91 17 May 2014 Brown, KemarleyKemarley Brown 9.93 21 years, 301 days  Jamaica North America 9.93 (2014) [29]
92 8 June 2014 Ujah, Chijindu Chijindu Ujah 9.96 20 years, 95 days  United Kingdom Europe 9.96 (2014) [30]
93[8] 13 June 2014 Bromell, Trayvon Trayvon Bromell 9.97 18 years, 338 days  United States North America 9.97 (2014) [31]

Notes[edit]

  • 1 The continental athletic association that governs the country that the athlete competes for internationally.
  • 2 The personal career best time achieved by the sprinter.
  • 3 Denotes a run achieved at a high altitude.
  • 4 Francis Obikwelu now competes for Portugal but he first broke the 10-second barrier while competing for Nigeria.
  • 5 Canadian Ben Johnson was the sixth runner to achieve the feat (having recorded multiple finishes under ten seconds), but these runs were rescinded after Johnson admitted to using steroids between 1981 and 1988.
  • 6 British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 4 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • 7 At the Jamaican national trials in June 2011, Steve Mullings had tested positive for the drug Furosemide, a masking agent. On 22 November the Jamaican Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel handed him a lifetime ban from athletics.
  • 8 Trayvon Bromell had broken the 10-second barrier a total of three times (9.99w, 9.77w, 9.92w) prior to recording 9.97, but all were wind-aided.

Totals[edit]

Hand timed marks[edit]

The following sprinters all received a hand-timed mark of 9.9 seconds. All the runners held the world record simultaneously. However, the timing may not have been precise.

Sprinters who have broken the 10-second barrier with manual timing
Date first broken Athlete Nationality No. of times broken
20 June 1968 Jim Hines[32]  United States 2
20 June 1968 Smith, Ronnie RayRonnie Ray Smith  United States 1
20 June 1968 Greene, CharlesCharles Greene  United States 1
21 June 1972 Williams, SteveSteve Williams  United States 4
1 July 1972 Hart, EddieEddie Hart  United States 1
1 July 1972 Robinson, ReyRey Robinson  United States 1
5 June 1975 Leonard, SilvioSilvio Leonard  Cuba 1
3 April 1976 Glance, HarveyHarvey Glance  United States 2
22 May 1976 Quarrie, DonDon Quarrie  Jamaica 1

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ Gardener, Jason. (2008-08-09). Jason Gardener: I'm backing Tyson Gay to win one of the greatest 100 metres finals. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2009-06-03.
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  3. ^ "Oerter sets world mark in discus". Lakeland Ledger (Lakeland, Florida: Associated Press). 28 April 1963. pp. 2–D. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Drake, Dick (May 1963). "ASU, Oerter Break Marks; Yang Scores Brilliant 9,121". Track & Field News. "And then there was Bob Hayes who ran the 100 meters faster than any man under any conditions. But it took a 11 mph wind to enable him to run 9.9." 
  5. ^ "Hayes still seriously ill". BBC Online. 16 December 2001. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Underwood, John (1 July 1968). "Some Old Boys Make A Stand". Sports Illustrated. 
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  8. ^ World Championships: A History. Sporting Life. Retrieved on 2009-08-06. Archived 2009-08-10.
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  10. ^ a b Tchechankov, Ivan (2011-06-10). 2011 already a record-breaking year for the men’s 100 metres - Updated. IAAF. Retrieved on 2011-06-11.
  11. ^ http://www.nevispages.com/kim-collins-runs-another-sub-10-secs-to-win-in-hungary/
  12. ^ a b c d US Olympic Trials Men 100 Meter Dash Quarter Finals. USATF (2008-06-28). Retrieved on 2009-06-03.
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ Lee, Kirby (2009-06-08). Phillips sails 8.74m in Eugene for best Long Jump in world since 1991 – IAAF World Athletics Tour. IAAF. Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
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  16. ^ Norlander, Matt. "Fairly shocking: Bolt loses 100-meter race". CBSSports. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  17. ^ Pierre Jean Vazel (2010-07-09). "Lemaitre - 9.98sec". IAAF. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  18. ^ "100 Metres 2nd Race Results". www.diamondleague-zurich.com. 2010-08-19. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  19. ^ a b "Results - 100m Men - Heat 2". www.rietimeeting.com. 2010-08-29. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
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  21. ^ "100 Metres Dash Results". www.flashresults.com. 2011-04-23. Retrieved 2011-04-24. 
  22. ^ "Tyson Gay runs world's fastest 100 this year in Central Florida meet". www.southflorida.sun-sentinel.com. 2011-06-04. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
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  24. ^ "100m Men: Results" (PDF). Samsung Diamond League. Omega Timing. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  25. ^ "100m Dash Results". www.flashresults.com. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  26. ^ Emeterio Valiente (8 July 2012). "Hyman joins sub-10 club in Madrid - IAAF World Challenge". IAAF. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  27. ^ Katherine Smith (5 June 2013). "Former Chamberlain athlete Dentarius Locke shows off blazing speed at NCAA meet". Bright House Sports Network. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "Magakwe breaks SA record". www.sport24.co.za. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  29. ^ http://jamaica-star.com/thestar/20140519/sports/sports2.html
  30. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/athletics/27756892
  31. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/news/report/trayvon-bromell-100m-world-junior-record
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External links[edit]