100 Gigabit Ethernet
In computer networking, 100 Gigabit Ethernet (or 100GbE) and 40 Gigabit Ethernet (or 40GbE) refers to various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rates of 100 or 40 gigabits per second, first defined by the IEEE 802.3ba-2010 standard.
Another variant, 802.3bg, was added in March 2011. There is an active task force 802.3bj working on a four lane backplane and copper 100G standard, and also the 802.3bm task force working on a standard for lower cost 100G optical PHYs.
In July 2006, the IEEE 802.3 working group formed the High Speed Study Group (HSSG) to investigate new standards for high speed Ethernet.
In June 2007, a trade group called "Road to 100G" was formed after the NXTcomm trade show in Chicago. Official standards work was started by IEEE 802.3 Higher Speed Study Group. In December 2007 a Project Authorization Request (PAR) was approved and the P802.3ba Ethernet Task Force commenced on December 5, 2007 with the following project authorization request:
The purpose of this project is to extend the 802.3 protocol to operating speeds of 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s in order to provide a significant increase in bandwidth while maintaining maximum compatibility with the installed base of 802.3 interfaces, previous investment in research and development, and principles of network operation and management. The project is to provide for the interconnection of equipment satisfying the distance requirements of the intended applications.
January 2008 the HSSG was renamed and met as the "IEEE 40Gb/s and 100Gbs Ethernet Task Force," moving the process to the next stage of formalization. This standard was approved at the June 2010 IEEE Standards Board meeting under the name IEEE Std 802.3ba-2010.
The IEEE 802.3 working group is concerned with the maintenance and extension of the Ethernet data communications standard. Additions to the 802.3 standard are performed by task forces which are designated by one or two letters. For example the 802.3z task force drafted the original gigabit Ethernet standard.
802.3ba is the designation given to the higher speed Ethernet task force which completed its work to modify the 802.3 standard to support speeds higher than 10 Gbit/s in 2010.
The speeds chosen by 802.3ba were 40 and 100 Gbit/s to support both end-point and link aggregation needs. This was the first time two different Ethernet speeds were specified in a single standard. The decision to include both speeds came from pressure to support the 40 Gbit/s rate for local server applications and the 100 Gbit/s rate for internet backbones. The standard was announced in July 2007 and was ratified on June 17, 2010.
The 40/100 Gigabit Ethernet standards encompass a number of different Ethernet physical layer (PHY) specifications. A networking device may support different PHY types by means of pluggable modules. Optical modules are not standardized by any official standards body but are in multi-source agreements (MSAs). One agreement that supports 40 and 100 Gigabit Ethernet is the C Form-factor Pluggable (CFP) MSA which was adopted for distances of 100+ meters. QSFP and CXP connector modules support shorter distances.
- Preserve the 802.3 / Ethernet frame format utilizing the 802.3 MAC
- Preserve minimum and maximum FrameSize of current 802.3 standard
- Support a bit error ratio (BER) better than or equal to 10−12 at the MAC/PLS service interface
- Provide appropriate support for OTN
- Support MAC data rates of 40 and 100 Gbit/s
- Provide Physical Layer specifications (PHY) for operation over single-mode optical fiber (SMF), laser optimized multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) OM3 and OM4, copper cable assembly, and backplane.
The following nomenclature was used for the physical layers:
|Physical layer||40 Gigabit Ethernet||100 Gigabit Ethernet|
|100 m over OM3 MMF||40GBASE-SR4||100GBASE-SR10|
|125 m over OM4 MMF|
|10 km over SMF||40GBASE-LR4||100GBASE-LR4|
|40 km over SMF||100GBASE-ER4|
|Serial SMF over 2 km||40GBASE-FR|
The 100 m laser optimized multi-mode fiber (OM3) objective was met by parallel ribbon cable with 850 nm wavelength 10GBASE-SR like optics (40GBASE-SR4 and 100GBASE-SR10). The backplane objective with 4 lanes of 10GBASE-KR type PHYs (40GBASE-KR4). The copper cable objective is met with 4 or 10 differential lanes using SFF-8642 and SFF-8436 connectors. The 10 and 40 km 100G objectives with four wavelengths (around 1310 nm) of 25G optics (100GBASE-LR4 and 100GBASE-ER4) and the 10 km 40G objective with four wavelengths (around 1310 nm) of 10G optics (40GBASE-LR4).
In January 2010 another IEEE project authorization started a task force to define a 40 gigabit per second serial single-mode optical fiber standard (40GBASE-FR). This was approved as standard 802.3bg in March 2011. It used 1550 nm optics, had a reach of 2 km and was capable of receiving 1550 nm and 1310 nm wavelengths of light. The capability to receive 1310 nm light allows it to inter-operate with a longer reach 1310 nm PHY should one ever be developed. 1550 nm was chosen as the wavelength for 802.3bg transmission to make it compatible with existing test equipment and infrastructure.
In December 2010, a 10x10 Multi Source Agreement (10x10 MSA) began to define an optical Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer and establish compatible sources of low-cost, low-power, pluggable optical transceivers based on 10 optical lanes at 10 gigabits/second each. The 10x10 MSA was intended as a lower cost alternative to 100GBASE-LR4 for applications which do not require a link length longer than 2 km. It was intended for use with standard single mode G.652.C/D type low water peak cable with ten wavelengths ranging from 1523 to 1595 nm. The founding members were Google, Brocade Communications, JDSU and Santur. Other member companies of the 10x10 MSA included MRV, Enablence, Cyoptics, AFOP, OPLINK, Hitachi Cable America, AMS-IX, EXFO, Huawei, Kotura, Facebook and Effdon when the 2 km specification was announced in March 2011. The 10X10 MSA modules were intended to be the same size as the C Form-factor Pluggable specifications.
There are currently two projects in 802.3 underway to specify additional PHYs. The 802.3bj task force is working to produce 100 Gbit/s 4x25G PHYs for backplane and twin-ax cable (100GBASE-KR4, 100GBASE-KP4 and 100GBASE-CR4). The 802.3bm task force is working to produce lower cost optical PHYs. The detailed objectives for these projects can be found on the 802.3 website.
100G Port Types 
100GBASE-CR10 ("copper") is a port type for twin-ax copper cable. Its Physical Coding Sublayer 64b/66b PCS is defined in IEEE 802.3 Clause 82 and its Physical Medium Dependent PMD in Clause 85. It delivers serialized data at a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s over ten lanes of twin-ax cable.
100GBASE-SR10 ("short range") is a port type for multi-mode fiber and uses 850 nm lasers. Its Physical Coding Sublayer 64b/66b PCS is defined in IEEE 802.3 Clause 82 and its Physical Medium Dependent PMD in Clause 86. It delivers serialized data at a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s over ten lanes of multi-mode fiber.
100GBASE-LR4 ("long range") is a port type for single-mode fiber and uses four lasers using four wavelengths around 1300 nm. Its Physical Coding Sublayer 64b/66b PCS is defined in IEEE 802.3 Clause 82 and its Physical Medium Dependent PMD in Clause 88. It delivers serialized data at a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s over four wavelengths in single-mode fiber.
100GBASE-ER4 ("extended range") is a port type for single-mode fiber and uses four lasers using four wavelengths around 1300 nm. Its Physical Coding Sublayer 64b/66b PCS is defined in IEEE 802.3 Clause 82 and its Physical Medium Dependent PMD in Clause 88. It delivers serialized data at a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s over four wavelengths in single-mode fiber.
NetLogic Microsystems announced backplane modules in October 2010. This industry trend is important because standards-based 100GE interconnects may allow building optical backplanes at a fraction of price currently required by VCSEL based implementations – such as those found in multichassis systems from Cisco (CRS) and Juniper Networks (T-series).
Copper cables 
Quellan announced a test board, but no module is available.
Multimode fiber 
Single mode fiber 
Finisar, Sumitomo Electric Industries, and OpNext all demonstrated singlemode 40 or 100 Gigabit Ethernet modules based on the C Form-factor Pluggable agreement at the European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication in 2009.
Optical domain IEEE 802.3ba implementations were not compatible with the numerous 40G and 100G line rate transport systems which feature different optical layer and modulation formats. In particular, existing 40 Gigabit transport solutions that used dense wavelength-division multiplexing to pack four 10 Gigabit signals into one optical medium were not compatible with the IEEE 802.3ba standard, which used either coarse WDM in 1310 nm wavelength region with four 25 Gigabit or four 10 Gigabit channels, or parallel optics with four or ten optical fibers per direction.
Test and Measurement 
These products verify Ethernet protocol implementation but do not test physical layer compliance to IEEE PMD specifications.
First commercial 100GE trials and deployments 
Although 100GE is a commodity interface in 2012 and beyond, it helps to understand the timeline and drivers behind the commercial adoption of technology.
Unlike the "race to 10Gbps" that was driven by the imminent needs to address growth pains of the Internet in late 1990s, customer interest in 100 Gbit/s technologies was mostly driven by economic factors. Among those, the common reasons to adopt 100GE were:
- to reduce the number of optical wavelengths ("lambdas") used and the need to light new fiber
- to utilize bandwidth more efficiently than 10 Gbit/s link aggregates
- to provide cheaper wholesale, internet peering and data center interconnect connectivity
- to skip the relatively expensive 40 Gbit/s technology and move directly from 10 Gbit/s to 100 Gbit/s
Considering that 100GE technology is natively compatible with OTN hierarchy and there is no separate adaptation for SONET/SDH and Ethernet networks, it was widely believed that 100GE technology adoption will be driven by products in all network layers, from transport systems to edge routers and datacenter switches. Nevertheless, in 2011 components for 100GE networks were not a commodity and most vendors entering this market relied on both internal R&D projects and extensive cooperation with other companies.
Optical Transport Systems 
Solving the challenges of optical signal transmission over a nonlinear medium is principally an analog design problem. As such, it has evolved at a slower rate relative to digital circuit lithography advances (which have generally progressed in step with Moore's law.) This explains why 10 Gbit/s transport systems have existed since the mid-1990s, while the first forays into 100 Gbit/s transmission happened about 15 years later – a 10x speed increase over 15 years is far slower than the 2x speed per 1.5 years typically cited for Moore's law tracking technologies. Nevertheless, as of Aug 2011 at least five firms (Ciena, Alcatel-Lucent, MRV, ADVA Optical and Huawei) have made customer announcements for 100 Gbit/s transport systems – although with varying degrees of capabilities. Although most vendors claim that 100 Gbit/s lightpaths can utilize existing analog optical infrastructure, in practice deployment of new, high-speed lambdas remains tightly controlled and extensive interoperability tests are required before moving new capacity into service.
Routers and switches with 100GbE interfaces 
Design of router or switch with support for 100Gbit/s interfaces is not an easy feat for multiple reasons. One of them is the need to process a 100 Gbit/s stream of packets at line rate without reordering within IP/MPLS microflows. As of 2011[update], most components in the 100 Gbit/s packet processing path (PHY chips, NPUs, memories) were not readily available off-the-shelf or require extensive qualification and co-design. Another problem is related to the low-output production of 100 Gbit/s optical components, which were also not easily available – especially in pluggable, long-reach or tunable laser flavors.
Alcatel-Lucent kicked off the 100G era in November 2007 with the industry’s first field trial of 100 Gbit/s optical transmission. Completed over a live, in-service 504-km portion of the Verizon® network, it connected the Florida cities of Tampa and Miami. 100GbE interfaces for the 7450 ESS/7750 SR service routing platform were first announced in June 2009, with field trials with Verizon, T-Systems and Portugal Telecom following in June–September 2010. In September 2009 Alcatel-Lucent combined the 100G capabilities of its IP routing and optical transport portfolio in an integrated solution called Converged Backbone Transformation. To date Alcatel-Lucent established itself as the market leader in 100G shipments and was named top optical vendor in a survey among carriers conducted by Infonetics in September 2012.
In a separate press release from June 2011, Alcatel-Lucent announced a packet processing architecture dubbed FP3,the first 400G network processor silicon in the industry. In May 2012, Alcatel-Lucent launched the new 7950 XRS core router based on the new FP3 chipset and offering a 5x higher 100GigE port density than the leading incumbent core routing systems.
For more information on Alcatel-Lucent’s 100 Gigabit Ethernet technology see 
Brocade Communications Systems 
In September 2010, Brocade announced their first 100GbE products to be based on the former Foundry Networks hardware (MLXe). In June 2011, the new product went live at AMS-IX traffic exchange point in Amsterdam, bringing first-ever 100GbE revenue for Brocade.
Cisco Systems 
The joint Cisco-Comcast press release on their first 100GbE trials was released in June 2008, however it is doubtful this transmission could approach 100 Gbit/s speeds when using a 40 gigabit per second per slot CRS-1 platform for packet processing. Cisco's first deployment of 100GbE at AT&T and Comcast occurred in April 2011. Later in the same year, Cisco tested the 100GbE interface between CRS-3 and a new generation of their ASR9K edge router.
Extreme Networks 
In October 2008, the Chinese vendor presented their first 100GbE interface for their flagship router, NE5000e. In September 2009, Huawei also presented an end-to-end 100G solution consisting of OSN6800/8800 optical transport and 100GbE ports on NE5000e. This time, it was also mentioned that Huawei's products had the new self-developed NPU "Solar 2.0 PFE2A" onboard and was using pluggable optics in CFP form-factor. In a mid-2010 product brief, the new NE5000e linecards were given commercial name (LPUF-100) and were credited with using two Solar-2.0 NPUs per 100GbE port in opposite (ingress/egress) configuration. Nevertheless, in October 2010, the company referenced shipments of NE5000e to Russian cell operator "Megafon" as "40Gbps/slot" solution, with "scalability up to" 100Gbit/s.
In April 2011, Huawei announced that the NE5000e platform was updated to carry 2x100GbE interfaces per slot using LPU-200 linecards. In a related solution brief, Huawei reported 120 thousand 20G/40G Solar 1.0 chips as shipped to customers, but no Solar 2.0 numbers were given. Also, following the August 2011 100G trial in Russia, Huawei reported paying 100G DWDM customers, but no 100GbE shipments on NE5000e.
Juniper Networks 
Juniper first announced that 100GbE would come to its T-series routers in June 2009. The 1x100GbE option followed in Nov 2010, when a joint press release with academic backbone network Internet2 marked the first production 100GbE interfaces going live in real network. Later in the same year, Juniper demonstrated 100GbE operation between core (T-series) and edge (MX 3D) routers. Juniper, in March 2011, announced first shipments of 100GbE interfaces to a major North American service provider (Verizon). In April 2011, Juniper successfully deployed a 100GbE system to an operator in the UK.(JANET ). In July 2011, Juniper announced that they were "pioneering" 100GbE with Australian ISP iiNet on their T1600 routing platform. (Juniper )
In March 2012, Juniper Networks started shipping the MPC3E line card for the MX router, a 10GE CFP MIC, and a 100GE LR4 CFP optics.
In Spring 2013, Juniper Networks announced the availability of the MPC4E line card for the MX router that includes 2 100GE CFP slots and 8 10GE SFP+ interfaces.
Dell's Force10 portfolio include switches using 40 Gbit/s interfaces. These 40Gbit/s fiber-optical interfaces using QSFP+ transceivers can be found on the Z9000 distributed core switches, S4810 and S4820 as well as the blade-switches MXL and the IO-Aggregator. The Dell PowerConnect 8100 series switches also offer 40 Gbit/s QSFP+ interfaces
Standardization time line 
IEEE standardization project history:
- Call for interest at IEEE 802.3 plenary meeting in San Diego – July 18, 2006
- First HSSG study group meeting – September 2006
- Last study group meeting – November 2007
- Task Force formally approved as P802.3ba by IEEE LMSC – December 5, 2007
- First P802.3ba task force meeting – January 2008
- IEEE 802.3 working group ballot – March 2009
- IEEE LMSC sponsor ballot – November 2009
- First 40 Gbit/s Ethernet Single-mode Fibre PMD study group meeting – January 2010.
- P802.3bg task force approved for 40 Gbit/s serial SMF PMD— March 25, 2010
- IEEE 802.3ba standard approved – June 17, 2010
- IEEE 802.3bg standard approved – March 2011
- IEEE 802.3bj 100 Gbit/s Backplane and Copper Cable Task Force PAR approval due – September 2011
P802.3ba Task Force draft release dates:
- Draft 1.0 – October 1, 2008
- Draft 1.1 – December 9, 2008
- Draft 1.2 – February 10, 2009
- Draft 2.0 – March 12, 2009 (for working group ballot)
- Draft 2.1 – May 29, 2009
- Draft 2.2 – August 15, 2009
- Draft 2.3 – October 14, 2009
- Draft 3.0 – November 18, 2009 (for sponsor group ballot)
- Draft 3.1 – February 10, 2010
- Draft 3.2 – March 24, 2010
- Final – June 17, 2010
See also 
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- "IEEE Forms Higher Speed Study Group to Explore the Next Generation of Ethernet Technology". 2006-07-25.
- Jeff Caruso (June 21, 2007). "Group pushes 100 Gigabit Ethernet: The 'Road to 100G' Alliance is born". Network World. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- "IEEE 802.3 Higher Speed Study Group". IEEE802.org. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "Project Authorization Request Approval notification: Approcal of P802.3ba". IEEE Standards Association Standards Board. December 5, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- Caruso, Jeff (2008-01-15). "Standardization work on next Ethernet gets under way". NetworkWorld.
- "IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force". 2010-06-21.
- "IEEE 802.3 standard".
- Reimer, Jeremy (2007-07-24). "New Ethernet standard: not 40Gbps, not 100, but both". ars technica.
- "CFP Multi-Source Agreement". official web site. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Greg Hankins (October 20, 2009). "IEEE P802.3ba 40 GbE and 100 GbE Standards Update" (PDF). North American Network Operators' Group (NANOG) 47 Presentations. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- John D'Ambrosia. "IEEE P802.3ba Objectives". Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- Ilango Ganga (May 13, 2009). "Chief Editor's Report". IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force public record. p. 8. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Ilango Ganga; Brad Booth; Howard Frazier; Shimon Muller; Gary Nicholl (May 13, 2008). "IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force, May 2008 Meeting".
- "IEEE P802.3bg 40Gb/s Ethernet: Single-mode Fibre PMD Task Force". official task force web site. IEEE 802. April 12, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Anderson, Jon. "Rationale for dual-band Rx in 40GBASE-FR".
- "10 x 10 MSA – Low Cost 100 GB/s Pluggable Optical Transceiver". official web site. 10x10 multi-source agreement. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "Leading Industry Peers Join Forces to Develop Low-Cost 100G Multi-Source Agreement". Businesswire news release. December 7, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "10X10 MSA Ratifies Specification for Low Cost 100 Gb/s 2 Kilometer Links". News release (10x10 MSA). March 4, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "NetLogic Microsystems Announces Industry's First Dual-Mode Quad-Port 10GBASE-KR and 40GBASE-KR4 Backplane PHY with Energy Efficient Ethernet". News release (NetLogic Microsystems). October 13, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Quellan QLx411GRx 40G Evaluation Board". Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "Mellanox Technologies". Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "InterBOARD CFP 100GBASE-SR10 Parallel Optical Module". commercial web site. Reflex Photonics Inc. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Finisar Corporation – Finisar First to Demonstrate 40 Gigabit Ethernet LR4 CFP Transceiver Over 10 km of Optical Fiber at ECOC". Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "Sumitomo Electric develops 40GbE transceiver". Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "Hitachi and Opnext unveil receiver for 100GbE and demo 10 km transmission over SMF". Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "Enabling 100 Gigabit Ethernet Implementing PCS Lanes".
- "Avago Technologies, Infinera & Ixia to demo the first 100 Gig Ethernet". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Ixia First to Offer 100 GE Testing Capability". News release (Ixia). September 29, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Testing: Overview". commercial web site. Ixia. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Discovery Semiconductors – 100 Gb Ethernet (4 x 25 Gb/s) Quad PIN-TIA Optical Receiver". commercial web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "JDSU Introduces Industry’s Most Robust 100 Gigabit Ethernet Test Suite". News release. JDS Uniphase. August 19, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "40/100 GbE: Testing the next generation of high speed Ethernet". commercial web site. Spirent Communications. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "EXFO and Opnext Achieve Full Interoperability, Successfully Testing IEEE-Compliant 100 Gigabit Ethernet Optics". News release. January 11, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Workshop on 100 Gigabit Ethernet a huge success". DTU news (Technical University of Denmark). February 2, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Torben R. Simonsen (January 26, 2011). "Dansk virksomhed klar med test til 100 Gb ethernet". Elektronik Branchen. Retrieved June 7, 2011. (Danish)
- 100G in routers Juniper Networks Presentation at ECOC 2009
- "Huawei's 100G is out of the door".
- "Verizon Successfully Completes Industry’s First Field Trial of 100 Gbps Optical Network Transmission".
- "Verizon completes industry-leading 100G Ethernet field trial".
- "A game-changing approach to the core".
- "Alcatel-Lucent named top optical vendor by carriers in new Infonetics survey".
- "Alcatel-Lucent's FP3 network processor routes at 400Gbps".
- "How Alcatel-Lucent made the Internet 5 times faster".
- "100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GE): Services unleashed at speed".
- Brocade set to unveil 100G Ethernet Brocade
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- "Cisco NGN Transport Solutions".
- Matsumoto, Craig (April 11, 2011). "AT&T, Comcast Go Live With 100G". Light Reading. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Liu, Stephen (July 25, 2011). "Cisco Live! Showing Off 100GbE on CRS-3 and ASR 9000 Series". blogs.cisco.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Duffy, Jim (Novermber 13, 2012). "Extreme joins Cisco, Brocade, Huawei at 100G". Network World. p. 1. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Huawei Successfully Develops 100 Gigabit Ethernet WDM Prototype".
- "Huawei Launches World' s First End-to-End 100G Solutions".
- "Huawei E2E 100G Solution".
- "Russia's MegaFon Awards Backbone Contract to Huawei".
- "Huawei Unveils the World's First 200G High-Speed Line Card for Routers".
- "Huawei 200G Solution".
- "Оборудование Huawei 100G успешно прошло тестирование в России".
- "Juniper networks introduces breakthrough 100 gigabit ethernet interface for t series routers".
- "Internet2 racing ahead with 100G Ethernet network".
- "Juniper Demonstrates Industry's First Live 100G Traffic From the Network Core to Edge".
- "Verizon First Service Provider to Announce 100G Deployment on U.S. Network".
- Deploying 100GE JANET UK
- "iiNet Pioneers 100GbE with new Juniper Networks Backbone".
- Dell Force10 S-series model comparison, visited 2 March 2013
- Technical details PowerConnect 8100 series, visited: 2 March 2013
- "40Gb/s Ethernet Single-mode Fibre PMD Study Group". official web site. IEEE 802. February 1, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "IEEE 802.3ba standard released". Help Net Security web site. June 21, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2011. "The IEEE 802.3ba standard, ratified June 17, 2010, ..."
- Ilango Ganga (September 21, 2009). "Chief Editor's Report". IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force public record. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
Further reading 
- Overview of Requirements and Applications for 40 Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet Technology Overview White Paper (Archived 2009-08-01) – Ethernet Alliance
- 40 Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet Technology Overview White Paper – Ethernet Alliance
- Ethernet Alliance
- "100G Ethernet cheat sheet: A collection of articles, slideshows, multimedia content on 100G Ethernet". Network World. November 19, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force
- IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force public area
- Higher Speed Study Group documents