100 Year Starship

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The 100 Year Starship (100YSS) is a joint U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grant project to a private entity in order to work toward achieving interstellar travel.[1] The aim of the project, announced in January 2012, is to work toward achieving interstellar travel within the next 100 years.

Foundation[edit]

The 100 Year Starship study is the name of a one year project to assess the attributes of and lay the groundwork for an organization that can carry forward the 100 Year Starship vision.[2][3] Former NASA astronaut Mae Jemison made the winning bid as leader of her own foundation, the Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence.[4] The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence was partnered on the DARPA project with Icarus Interstellar, a non-profit organisation that is dedicated to interstellar travel,[5] and the Foundation for Enterprise Development.

100 Year Starship Symposium[edit]

Prior to the solicitation for the foundation, the Hundred Year Starship project was initiated with a conference held in Orlando, FL, from September 30 to October 2 2011, co-sponsored by DARPA and NASA, organized by DARPA’s Tactical Technology Office director, David Neyland.[6][7] The conference included presentations on the technology, biology, physics, philosophy, sociology, and economics of interstellar flight.[8][9] Selected papers from the conference were published in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society.

After naming the Jemison foundation as winner of the solicitation, a second symposium was held in 2012 in Houston. Papers on a number of subjects related to interstellar flight and organization of the foundation were presented,[2] among these a paper by Dr. Harold ("Sonny") White[10] of NASA's Johnson Space Center discussing an attempt to measure the warping of space time using a Michelson interferometer[11] to investigate the possibility of faster-than-light travel.[12]

Funding[edit]

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the primary funding agency together with the support of NASA Ames Research Center. So far, NASA has contributed $100,000 while DARPA has contributed $1 million.[1]

Challenges[edit]

The daily life of citizens on Earth can be greatly improved through the innovations, inventions, and advances made through space exploration. Under ten years of achieving Earth orbit, humans were able to land on the moon.[13] From then on, humans on Earth have observed the universe through satellite data and images, mars rovers, and deep space probes and space telescopes. Complex interstellar travel has been simplified through the accomplishments of the Skylab, International Space Station, Space Shuttle, Mir, and Shenzhou.[14]

Even still, the challenge of travelling to a different star is very difficult. The solar system is huge compared to Earth, and Pluto for example is much closer than the distances of interstellar space or between stars. Therefore, we know much more about our solar system than what is beyond it because of the challenge of distance. These enormous distances even have their own special units called astronomical units, to simplify its measuring. Exoplanets and new stars are being discovered nearly every day and improving our knowledge of ourselves and the universe. The greatest distance a manmade object launched from Earth has travelled is around 100 AU far from Earth. This has been achieved by the Voyager 1 that has travelled at 35,700 miles per hour for above 30 years now. [15]

If the time needed for a mission to reach another star takes longer than a human lifespan, it may require many generations to finish the journey. The many challenges of interstellar travel may include the vessel to remain on course, react to unpredicted events, communicate with people on Earth and on the way, and expand technology capabilities and knowledge. As well as, the accommodation of spacefarers by keeping them happy, engaged, healthy, and working. There are also challenges to the human body since some of the cardiovascular system and human heart’s ability to effectively pump blood is lost and de-conditioned when returned from space to an environment with gravity. Also, muscles must maintain strength with constant challenges but almost 13% of back muscle mass as well as bone matrix and calcium are lost by astronauts in only eight days without gravity, making them more vulnerable to fractures. [16]

The most important challenge is possibly what is unknown. It is impossible to see all the dust and other matter out there that does not emit light, making the knowledge of it all more desirable. Energy is needed to move or propel a vehicle and to power the systems of the spacecraft such as lights, navigation, agriculture, computers, environmental controls, etc. Energy can be generated in multiple ways, but the methods used on Earth such as burning fossil fuels produce little energy, and there is not enough material on Earth for the collecting and storing of the massive amount of energy required to power interstellar travel.[17]Thus, another challenge is to develop the technology in order to build better and powerful sources of energy. Solar energy is an efficient means of generating a good amount of energy when the sun is close, but not so efficient when far away. So using solar energy is not efficient when travelling between stars.

However a solution for the energy challenge is the use of nuclear sources for rapid interstellar and interplanetary travel. Nuclear sources are far superior to chemical sources in terms of energy generation. First of all, nuclear fission energy generates electricity and heat with the splitting of atoms and is already in use on Earth. Fission is used for the powering of spacecraft instruments, but it must be developed further in order for it to be safe for use in larger systems for launch and people on board. Fusion is another form of nuclear energy that uses the same process that powers the Sun and can generate more energy than fission. This energy can only be controlled and generated in large quantities when using weapons such as thermonuclear bombs at present. Finally, antimatter is the source of the most powerful form of energy generation in the modern day and energy in immense quantities is released with the meeting of matter and antimatter. Very little amounts of antimatter have been generated for short periods of time currently.[18] Therefore, the speed at which we can travel determines the time needed to travel to other stars.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Overbye, Dennis (August 18, 2011). "Offering Funds, U.S. Agency Dreams of Sending Humans to Stars". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ a b "100 Year Starship Study™ 2012 Public Symposium". 
  3. ^ "THE 100-YEAR STARSHIP STUDY". 
  4. ^ Weinberger, Sharon (5 January 2012). "Former astronaut to lead starship effort". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  5. ^ Icarus Interstellar website
  6. ^ Chang, Kenneth (October 17, 2011). "Not Such a Stretch to Reach for the Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved Jan 1, 2013. 
  7. ^ Belfiore, Michael (September 30, 2011). "To Infinity and Beyond at DARPA’s 100-Year Starship Symposium". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved Jan 1, 2013. 
  8. ^ 100 Year Starship Study, 2011 Public Symposium Agenda (pdf) (accessed Jan. 1, 2013)
  9. ^ Belfiore, Michael. "6 Wild Ideas from DARPA's Starship Conference". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved Jan 1, 2013. 
  10. ^ http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/team/harold-white/
  11. ^ see White–Juday warp-field interferometer article
  12. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (September 17, 2012). "Warp Drive May Be More Feasible Than Thought, Scientists Say". Space.com. 
  13. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  14. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  15. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  16. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  17. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  18. ^ 100 Year Starship">"100yss". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 


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