100 metres

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This article is about the 100-metre race. For lengths on the order of magnitude of 100 metres, see 1 hectometre.
Athletics
100 metres
Osaka07 D2A Torri Edwards.jpg
Female athletes in a 100 metres heat at the 2007 World Championships.
Men's records
World Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
Olympic Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
World United States Florence Griffith 10.49 (1988)
Olympic United States Florence Griffith 10.62 (1988)

The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man/woman in the world". Jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world and Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.4 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

Race dynamics[edit]

Start[edit]

Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

The time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.1-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time it takes to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[4] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 world championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]

Mid-race[edit]

Runners typically reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

Finish[edit]

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions[edit]

See also: wind assistance

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts (explaining why many athletes choose not to breathe for the duration of the race)[citation needed]. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A".[10]

10-second barrier[edit]

Main article: 10-second barrier

Gender and ethnicity[edit]

Main article: race and sports
In 2010, Christophe Lemaitre became the first white sprinter to run 100m in under 10 seconds officially.

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (who has Irish and Indigenous Australian heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In 2010, Frenchman Christophe Lemaitre became the first white European under ten seconds (although Poland's Marian Woronin had unofficially surpassed the barrier with a time of 9.992 seconds in 1984).[15] In 2011, Zimbabwean Ngonidzashe Makusha became the 76th man to break the barrier, yet only the fourth man not of West African descent.[16] No sprinter from Asia or East and North Africa has officially achieved this feat,[17][18] though Koji Ito of Japan[19] and Zhang Peimeng of China[20] have both recorded times of exactly ten seconds.

It is believed that biological factors may be largely responsible for the notable success in sprinting events enjoyed by athletes of West African descent. Chief among these is a preponderance of natural fast twitch muscle fibers, which aid to obtain higher power, thus higher acceleration and speed. Scientists have concluded that elite-level sprinting is virtually impossible in the absence of the ACTN3 protein, a "speed gene" most common among persons of West African descent that renders fast twitch muscle fibers fast. African American 200 m and 400 m world champion Michael Johnson has suggested that the presence of ACTN3 is at the root of the success of these athletes in sprinting events.[17][21] Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting.[21]

Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[22] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[18]

Record performances[edit]

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[23] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[24] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the USA, in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988.[25]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Green were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records[edit]

Updated 10 February 2014.[26]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 10.79 +1.1 Blessing Okagbare  Nigeria
Asia (records) 9.99 +0.9 Samuel Francis  Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson  Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen  Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva  Brazil 11.05 +1.7 Ana Cláudia Lemos  Brazil

Notes[edit]

Fastest 100 metres runners[edit]

All-time top 25 men[edit]

Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics

As of September 2014[28]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
1 9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
−0.1 Yohan Blake  Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell  Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne
5 9.77 +0.6 Justin Gatlin  United States 5 September 2014 Brussels [29]
6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter  Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti
7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene  United States 16 June 1999 Athens
8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings  Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene
9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson  Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain
10 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey  Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin  Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
12 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell  United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 12 May 2006 Ad-Dawhah
+1.3 Mike Rodgers  United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
15 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis  United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks  Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon  Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman  Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
20 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie  United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.2 Obadele Thompson [A]  Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
22 9.88 +1.8 Shawn Crawford  United States 19 June 2004 Eugene
+1.0 Walter Dix  United States 8 August 2010 Nottwil
+0.9 Ryan Bailey  United States 29 August 2010 Rieti
+1.0 Michael Frater  Jamaica 30 June 2011 Lausanne

More facts about these male runners[edit]

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/hr). This was achieved at a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). The second fastest all-time record is that of Asafa Powell, with a run of 8.75 on the 4 x 100 metres anchor leg at the Beijing Olympics.[citation needed]
  • Tyson Gay also has a time of 9.68 s set on 29 June 2008 during the 2008 U.S. Olympic Track & Field Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon; the tail wind speed was +4.1 m/s, more than double the IAAF legal limit of +2.0 m/s.[30]
  • Obadele Thompson ran a wind-aided 9.69 in El Paso, Texas in April 1996 which stood as the fastest ever 100m time for 12 years until Tyson Gay's June 2008 performance; the tail wind speed was +5.7 m/s.
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006.
  • Carl Lewis ran a time of 9.78 seconds at the 1988 US Olympic trials in Indianapolis, but it was wind aided (the tail wind speed was +5.2 m/s).
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognized as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran a total of four 9.86 clockings, (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Steve Mullings serving a lifetime ban for doping.

All-time top 25 women[edit]

Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.

As of July 2013

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones  United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce  Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
5 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France 19 August 1998 Budapest
6 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey  Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
7 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart  Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
8 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford  United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
10 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova  Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova  Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
12 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell  United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards  United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
14 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller  United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare  Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
17 10.80 +0.8 Tori Bowie  United States 18 July 2014 Monaco
18 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Gohr  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
19 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers  United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+0.4 Gwen Torrence  United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block  Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson  Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston
23 10.83 +1.7 Marita Koch  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
0.0 Sheila Echols  United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
−0.7 Juliet Cuthbert  Jamaica 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+0.1 Ekaterina Thanou  Greece 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.6 Kelly-Ann Baptiste  Trinidad and Tobago 22 June 2013 Port of Spain

More facts about these female runners[edit]

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's World Record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[31] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record".[32] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[33] Sheila Echols' 10.83 clocking was set in the same quarter-final race at the US Olympic trials as Griffith-Joyner's world record, her next best time is 10.99, from the semi-finals of the same meet.
  • Gail Devers also has two other 10.82 performances, 7 July 1993 in Lausanne (+1.5) and 16 August 1993 in the World Championship final in Stuttgart (−0.3).

Best Year Performances[edit]

Men[edit]

Year Time Athlete Place
1977 9.98A  Silvio Leonard (CUB) Guadalajara
1978 10.07(A)  Clancy Edwards (USA)
 Eddie Hart (USA)
 Steve Williams (USA)
Eugene
Colorado Springs(A)
Zurich
1979 10.01A  Pietro Mennea (ITA) Ciudad de Mexico
1980 10.02  James Sanford (USA) Westwood
1981 10.00  Carl Lewis (USA) Dallas
1982 10.00  Carl Lewis (USA) Modesto
1983 9.93A  Calvin Smith (USA) Colorado Springs
1984 9.96  Mel Lattany (USA) Athens
1985 9.98  Carl Lewis (USA) Modesto
1986 10.00  Chidi Imoh (NGR) Berlin
1987 9.93  Carl Lewis (USA) Rome
1988 9.92  Carl Lewis (USA) Seoul
1989 9.94  Leroy Burrell (USA) Houston
1990 9.96  Leroy Burrell (USA) Villeneuve d'Ascq; Sestriere(A)
1991 9.86  Carl Lewis (USA) Tokyo
1992 9.93  Michael Marsh (USA) Walnut
1993 9.87  Linford Christie (GBR) Stuttgart
1994 9.85  Leroy Burrell (USA) Lausanne
1995 9.91  Donovan Bailey (CAN) Montreal
1996 9.84  Donovan Bailey (CAN) Atlanta
1997 9.86  Maurice Greene (USA) Athens
1998 9.86  Ato Boldon (TRI) Walnut; Athens
1999 9.79  Maurice Greene (USA) Athens
2000 9.86  Maurice Greene (USA) Berlin
2001 9.82  Maurice Greene (USA) Edmonton
2002 9.89  Maurice Greene (USA) Roma
2003 9.93  Patrick Johnson (AUS) Mito
2004 9.85  Justin Gatlin (USA) Athens
2005 9.77  Asafa Powell (JAM) Athens
2006 9.77  Asafa Powell (JAM) Gateshead; Zurich
2007 9.74  Asafa Powell (JAM) Rieti
2008 9.69  Usain Bolt (JAM) Beijing
2009 9.58  Usain Bolt (JAM) Berlin
2010 9.78  Tyson Gay (USA)
 Nesta Carter (JAM)
London
Rieti
2011 9.76  Usain Bolt (JAM) Bruxelles
2012 9.63  Usain Bolt (JAM) London
2013 9.77  Usain Bolt (JAM) Moscow
2014 9.77  Justin Gatlin (USA) Bruxelles

Women[edit]

Year Time Athlete Place
1977 10.88  Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1978 10.94  Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1979 10.97  Marlies Göhr (GDR)
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)
Dresden
Walnut
1980 10.93  Marlies Göhr (GDR) Dresden
1981 10.90A  Evelyn Ashford (USA) Colorado Springs
1982 10.88  Marlies Göhr (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt
1983 10.79A  Evelyn Ashford (USA) Colorado Springs
1984 10.76  Evelyn Ashford (USA) Zurich
1985 10.86  Marlies Göhr (GDR) Berlin
1986 10.88  Evelyn Ashford (USA) Rieti
1987 10.86  Anelia Nuneva (BUL)
 Silke Möller (GER)
Beograd
Potsdam
1988 10.49  Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA) Indianapolis
1989 10.78A  Dawn Sowell (USA) Provo
1990 10.78  Merlene Ottey (JAM) Sevilla
1991 10.79  Merlene Ottey (JAM) Vigo
1992 10.80  Merlene Ottey (JAM) Salamanca
1993 10.82  Gail Devers (USA)
 Merlene Ottey (JAM)
Lausanne;Stuttgart
Stuttgart
1994 10.77  Irina Privalova (RUS) Lausanne
1995 10.84  Gwen Torrence (USA) Goteborg
1996 10.74  Merlene Ottey (JAM) Milano
1997 10.76  Marion Jones (USA) Bruxelles
1998 10.65A  Marion Jones (USA) Johannesburg
1999 10.70  Marion Jones (USA) Sevilla
2000 10.78  Marion Jones (USA) Sevilla
2001 10.82  Zhanna Block (UKR) Edmonton
2002 10.86  Zhanna Block (USA) Heusden-Zolder
2003 10.86  Chryste Gaines (USA) Monaco
2004 10.77  Ivet Lalova (BUL) Plovdiv
2005 10.84  Chandra Sturrup (BAH) Lausanne
2006 10.82  Sherone Simpson (JAM) Kingston
2007 10.89  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Kingston
2008 10.78  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)
 Torri Edwards (USA)
Beijing
Eugene
2009 10.64  Carmelita Jeter (USA) Shanghai
2010 10.78  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM) Eugene
2011 10.70  Carmelita Jeter (USA) Eugene
2012 10.70  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) Kingston
2013 10.71  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) Moscow
2014 10.80  Tori Bowie (USA) Monaco

Junior (under-20) men[edit]

Updated 15 June 2014[34]

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell  United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Paris
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
5 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland  United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
6 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry  United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre  France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
8 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili  Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona
9 10.06 +2.0 Dwain Chambers  Great Britain 25 July 1997 Ljubljana
+1.5 Walter Dix  United States 27 May 2005 New York City
11 10.07 +2.0 Stanley Floyd  United States 24 May 1980 Austin
+1.1 DaBryan Blanton  United States 30 May 2003 Lincoln
+0.2 Tamunosiki Atorudibo  Nigeria 8 July 2004 Abuja
+0.3 Jimmy Vicaut  France 22 July 2011 Tallinn

Notes[edit]

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 4 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinters Davidson Ezinwa and Sunday Emmanuel ran 10.05 (4 January 1990) and 10.06 (26 April 1997), respectively, but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[35]

Women[edit]

Junior (under-20) women[edit]

Updated 5 May 2012

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr  East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe  East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner  United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
5 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams  United States 5 June 1999 Boise
6 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight  United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
7 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
8 11.11 +0.2 Shakedia Jones  United States 2 May 1998 Westwood
+1.1 Joan Uduak Ekah  Nigeria 2 July 1999 Lausanne
10 11.12 +2.0 Veronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica 18 October 2000 Santiago
+1.2 Alexandria Anderson  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+1.1 Aurieyall Scott  United States 24 June 2011 Eugene

Youth (under-18) boys[edit]

Updated 11 December 2012

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
1 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
2 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo  Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson  United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
4 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
5 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels  United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
7 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom  United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel  Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
9 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas  United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson  United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams  United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy  Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay

Youth (under-18) girls[edit]

Updated 5 May 2012

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location
1 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
2 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones  United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams  United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
4 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
5 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen  United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
6 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle  Australia 15 June 1968 Mexico City
7 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams  Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford
9 11.26 +1.4 Grit Breuer  East Germany 30 June 1989 Dresden
+1.2 Bianca Knight  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis

Paralympic men[edit]

Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated to 14 November 2013[36]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 11.03 +0.4 Lucas Prado  Brazil 9 September 2008 Beijing
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov  Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth  Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 +0.0 Martin McDonagh  Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 17.41 +1.7 Ahmad Almutairi  Kuwait 16 March 2013 Sharjah
T34 15.69 +0.1 Walid Ktila  Tunisia 17 January 2012 Kuwait City
T35 12.29 −0.3 Yang Sen  People's Republic of China 13 September 2008 Beijing
T36 11.90 -0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov  Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T37 11.48 -0.7 Andrey Vdovin  Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T38 10.79 +0.4 Evan O'Hanlon  Australia 1 September 2012 London
T42 12.11 +1.2 Heinrich Popow  Germany 12 July 2013 Leverkusen
T43 10.57 +1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira  Brazil 28 July 2013 London
T44 10.75 +1.9 Richard Browne  United States 28 July 2013 London
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento  Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T46 10.72 +0.0 Ajibola Adeoye  Nigeria 6 September 1992 Barcelona
T51 21.11 +1.2 Toni Piispanen  Finland 17 May 2012 Pratteln
T52 16.73 +0.4 Paul Nitz  United States 20 May 2012 Nottwil
T53 14.34 +0.7 Brent Lakatos  Canada 28 July 2013 London
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti  Finland 1 September 2012 London

Paralympic women[edit]

Updated to 14 November 2013[37]

Classification Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location
T11 12.01 +1.2 Terezinha Guilhermina  Brazil 5 September 2012 London
T12 11.91 +0.6 Zhou Guohua  People's Republic of China 1 September 2012 London
T13 11.99 −0.9 Omara Durand  Cuba 17 November 2011 Guadalajara
T32 37.67 +0.0 Lindsay Wright  United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer  United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.54 -0.5 Hannah Cockroft  United Kingdom 25 May 2013 Pratteln
T35 15.63 −0.3 Oxana Corso  Italy 22 July 2013 Lyon
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang  People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.68 +0.4 Mandy Francois-Elie  France 8 June 2013 Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire
T38 13.10 -0.6 Sophie Hahn  United Kingdom 24 July 2013 Lyon
T42 15.18 −0.5 Martina Caironi  Italy 6 June 2013 Rome
T43 12.96 +0.8 Marlou van Rhijn  Netherlands 15 June 2013 London
T44 12.98 +0.0 April Holmes  Netherlands 1 July 2006 Atlanta
T45 14.00 +0.0 G Cole  Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo  Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 +0.0 V Hill  United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell  Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.22 −0.2 Huang Lisha  People's Republic of China 12 September 2008 Beijing
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu  People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medalists[edit]

Further information: 100 metres at the Olympics

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Burke (USA)  Fritz Hofmann (GER)  Francis Lane (USA)
 Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
 Frank Jarvis (USA)  Walter Tewksbury (USA)  Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Archie Hahn (USA)  Nate Cartmell (USA)  William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
 Reggie Walker (RSA)  James Rector (USA)  Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Ralph Craig (USA)  Alvah Meyer (USA)  Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Charlie Paddock (USA)  Morris Kirksey (USA)  Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
 Harold Abrahams (GBR)  Jackson Scholz (USA)  Arthur Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Percy Williams (CAN)  Jack London (GBR)  Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Eddie Tolan (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Jesse Owens (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
 Harrison Dillard (USA)  Barney Ewell (USA)  Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Lindy Remigino (USA)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Bobby Morrow (USA)  Thane Baker (USA)  Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Armin Hary (EUA)  Dave Sime (USA)  Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Bob Hayes (USA)  Enrique Figuerola (CUB)  Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Jim Hines (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)  Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Valeriy Borzov (URS)  Robert Taylor (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
 Hasely Crawford (TRI)  Don Quarrie (JAM)  Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Allan Wells (GBR)  Silvio Leonard (CUB)  Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Sam Graddy (USA)  Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[38][39]
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Linford Christie (GBR)  Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Linford Christie (GBR)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)  Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Francis Obikwelu (POR)  Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Richard Thompson (TRI)  Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Yohan Blake (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Betty Robinson (USA)  Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)  Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Hilda Strike (CAN)  Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Helen Stephens (USA)  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
details
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)  Dorothy Manley (GBR)  Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Marjorie Jackson (AUS)  Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)  Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS)  Christa Stubnick (EUA)  Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Wilma Rudolph (USA)  Dorothy Hyman (GBR)  Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Edith McGuire (USA)  Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Barbara Ferrell (USA)  Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
details
 Renate Stecher (GDR)  Raelene Boyle (AUS)  Silvia Chibás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
details
 Annegret Richter (FRG)  Renate Stecher (GDR)  Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
 Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)  Marlies Göhr (GDR)  Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Alice Brown (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
details
 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)  Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)  Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[40]  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
 Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Sherone Simpson (JAM) none awarded
 Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)

World Championship medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Carl Lewis (USA) 10.07  Calvin Smith (USA) 10.21  Emmit King (USA) 10.24
1987 Rome  Carl Lewis (USA) 9.93  Raymond Stewart (JAM) 10.08  Linford Christie (GBR) 10.14
1991 Tokyo  Carl Lewis (USA) 9.86  Leroy Burrell (USA) 9.88  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 9.91
1993 Stuttgart  Linford Christie (GBR) 9.87  Andre Cason (USA) 9.92  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 9.99
1995 Gothenburg  Donovan Bailey (CAN) 9.97  Bruny Surin (CAN) 10.03  Ato Boldon (TRI) 10.03
1997 Athens  Maurice Greene (USA) 9.86  Donovan Bailey (CAN) 9.91  Tim Montgomery (USA) 9.94
1999 Seville  Maurice Greene (USA) 9.80  Bruny Surin (CAN) 9.84  Dwain Chambers (GBR) 9.97
2001 Edmonton  Maurice Greene (USA) 9.82  Bernard Williams (USA) 9.94  Ato Boldon (TRI) 9.98
2003 Paris  Kim Collins (SKN) 10.07  Darrel Brown (TRI) 10.08  Darren Campbell (GBR) 10.08
2005 Helsinki  Justin Gatlin (USA) 9.88  Michael Frater (JAM) 10.05  Kim Collins (SKN) 10.05
2007 Osaka  Tyson Gay (USA) 9.85  Derrick Atkins (BAH) 9.91  Asafa Powell (JAM) 9.96
2009 Berlin  Usain Bolt (JAM) 9.58  Tyson Gay (USA) 9.71  Asafa Powell (JAM) 9.84
2011 Daegu  Yohan Blake (JAM) 9.92  Walter Dix (USA) 10.08  Kim Collins (SKN) 10.09
2013 Moscow  Usain Bolt (JAM) 9.77  Justin Gatlin (USA) 9.85  Nesta Carter (JAM) 9.95

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR)  Marita Koch (GDR)  Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome  Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)  Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo  Katrin Krabbe (GER)  Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart  Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg  Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Marion Jones (USA)  Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)  Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville  Marion Jones (USA)  Inger Miller (USA)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton  Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Paris  Torri Edwards (USA)  Zhanna Block (UKR)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2005 Helsinki  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)  Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Kerron Stewart (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Murielle Ahouré (CIV)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  2. ^ The Day – 23 January 1983
  3. ^ http://www.athleticsweekly.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3893
  4. ^ "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  5. ^ "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  6. ^ Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Sandre-Tom. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164". IAAF. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  10. ^ 100 metres IAAF
  11. ^ Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  12. ^ The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  13. ^ Athlete Profiles - Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. ^ Jad, Adrian (July 2011). "Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) - Officially the Fastest White Man in History". adriansprints.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  15. ^ "Błąd w odczycie wyniku Justina Gatlina" (in polish). www.sport.wp.pl. 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-18. 
  16. ^ "9"98 pour Lemaitre", Le Figaro, 07-09-2010
  17. ^ a b Entine, Jon (8 December 2012). "The DNA Olympics -- Jamaicans Win Sprinting 'Genetic Lottery' -- and Why We Should All Care". Forbes. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  18. ^ a b Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  19. ^ [1], IAAF, 12-08-2013
  20. ^ [2], IAAF, 11-08-2013
  21. ^ a b Demirel, Evin (8 August 2012). "What Made Arkansas’ Record-Setting 2012 Track Team So Unique". The Sports Seer. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  22. ^ Who Do You Think You Are - Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  23. ^ Press, Associated. "Progression of 100 meters world record". ESPN. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  24. ^ "100 Metres Results". IAAF. 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  25. ^ 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
  26. ^ 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
  27. ^ 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  28. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  29. ^ http://zeenews.india.com/sports/others/justin-gatlin-rolls-back-the-years-as-tyro-barshim-basks_1465688.html
  30. ^ Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008), "Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" The New York Times
  31. ^ Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). "Mathematical Models of Running". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  32. ^ Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008. 
  33. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  34. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  35. ^ Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
  36. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records – Men's 100 m". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  37. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records – Women's 100 m". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  38. ^ Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
  39. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988. 
  40. ^ On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relenquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.

External links[edit]