1080p

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TV standards through 1080p

1080p (aka Full HD/ FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1080 horizontal lines of vertical resolution[1] and progressive scan, as opposed to interlaced, as is the case with the 1080i display standard. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 1920x1080 (2.1 megapixel) often marketed as Full HD.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.[2]

Broadcasting standards[edit]

1080p HDTV

Any display device that advertises 1080p typically refers to the ability to accept 1080p signals in native resolution format, which means there are a true 1920 pixels in width and 1080 pixels in height, and the display is not overscanning, underscanning, or reinterpreting the signal to a lower resolution. The HD ready 1080p logo program, by DIGITALEUROPE, requires that certified TV sets support 1080p 24fps, 1080p 50fps, and 1080p 60fps formats, among other requirements, with fps meaning frames per second.

It is one of the more universally accepted video standards.[3]

For live broadcast applications, a high-definition progressive scan format operating at 1080p at 50 or 60 frames per second is currently being evaluated as a future standard for moving picture acquisition.[4][5] EBU has been endorsing 1080p50 as a future-proof production format because it improves resolution and requires no deinterlacing, allows broadcasting of standard 1080i25 and 720p50 signal alongside 1080p50 even in the current infrastructure and is compatible with DCI distribution formats.[6][7]

1080p50/p60 production format will require a whole new range of studio equipment including cameras, storage and editing systems,[8] and contribution links (such as Dual-link HD-SDI and 3G-SDI) as it has doubled the data rate of current 50 or 60 fields interlaced 1920x1080 from 1.485 Gbit/s to nominally 3 Gbit/s using uncompressed RGB encoding. Most current revisions of SMPTE 372M, SMPTE 424M and EBU Tech 3299 require YCbCr color space and 4:2:2 chroma subsampling for transmitting 1080p50 (nominally 2.08 Gbit/s) and 1080p60 signal.

Recent studies show that for digital broadcasts compressed with H.264/AVC, transmission bandwidth savings of interlaced video over fully progressive video are minimal even when using twice the frame rate, i.e., 1080p50 signal (50 progressive frames per second) actually produces the same bit rate as 1080i50 signal (25 interlaced frames or 50 sub-fields per second).[6][7][9]

ATSC[edit]

In the United States, the original ATSC standards for HDTV supported 1080p video, but only at the frame rates of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97 and 30 frames per second (colloquially known as 1080p24, 1080p25 and 1080p30).

In July 2008, the ATSC standards were amended to include H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression and 1080p at 50, 59.94 and 60 frames per second (1080p50 and 1080p60). Such frame rates require H.264/AVC High Profile Level 4.2, while standard HDTV frame rates only require Level 4.0.

This update is not expected to result in widespread availability of 1080p60 programming, since most of the existing digital receivers in use would only be able to decode the older, less-efficient MPEG-2 codec, and because there is a limited amount of bandwidth for subchannels.

DVB[edit]

In Europe, 1080p25 signals have been supported by the DVB suite of broadcasting standards. The 1080p50 is considered to be a future-proof production format and, eventually, a future broadcasting format.[4] 1080p50 broadcasting should require the same bandwidth as 1080i50 signal and only 15–20% more than that of 720p50 signal due to increased compression efficiency,[6] though 1080p50 production requires more bandwidth and/or more efficient codecs such as JPEG 2000, high-bitrate MPEG-2, or H.264/AVC and HEVC.[7][10]

From September 2009, ETSI and EBU, the maintainers of the DVB suite, added support for 1080p50 signal coded with MPEG-4 AVC High Profile Level 4.2 with Scalable Video Coding extensions or VC-1 Advanced Profile compression; DVB also supports 1080p encoded at ATSC frame rates of 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94 and 60.[11][12]

EBU requires that legacy MPEG-4 AVC decoders should avoid crashing in the presence of SVC and/or 1080p50 (and higher resolution) packets.[11] SVC enables forward compatibility with 1080p50 and 1080p60 broadcasting for older MPEG-4 AVC receivers, so they will only recognize baseline SVC stream coded at a lower resolution or frame rate (such as 720p60 or 1080i60) and will gracefully ignore additional packets, while newer hardware will be able to decode full-resolution signal (such as 1080p60).

Availability[edit]

This chart shows the most common display resolutions, 16:9 formats shown in blue.

Broadcasts[edit]

In the United States, 1080p over-the-air broadcasts still do not exist as of March 2014; all major networks use either 720p60 or 1080i60 encoded with MPEG-2. However, satellite services (e.g., DirecTV, XstreamHD and Dish Network) utilize the 1080p/24-30 format with MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 encoding for pay-per-view movies that are downloaded in advance via satellite or on-demand via broadband. At this time, no pay service channel such as USA, HDNET, etc. nor premium movie channel such as HBO, etc., stream their services live to their distributors (MVPD) in this format because many MVPDs, especially DBS and cable, do not have sufficient bandwidth to provide the format streaming live to their subscribers without negatively impacting their current services. In addition is the high "cost" of using more bandwidth for one 1080p/24 channel than that necessary for a 1080i or even a 720p channel and for only those relatively few subscribers who have HDTV devices that can display 1080p/24 being an efficient use of their limited bandwidth.

For material that originates from a progressive scanned 24 frame/s source (such as film), MPEG-2 lets the video be coded as 1080p24, irrespective of the final output format. These progressively-coded frames are tagged with metadata (literally, fields of the PICTURE header) instructing a decoder how to perform a 3:2 pulldown to interlace them. While the formal output of the MPEG-2 decoding process from such stations is 1080i60, the actual content is coded as 1080p24 and can be viewed as such (using a process known as inverse telecine) since no information is lost even when the broadcaster performs the 3:2 pulldown.[13]

Blu-ray Disc[edit]

Blu-ray Discs are able to hold 1080p HD content, and most movies released on Blu-ray Disc produce a full 1080p HD picture when the player is connected to a 1080p HDTV via an HDMI cable. The Blu-ray Disc video specification allows encoding of 1080p23.976, 1080p24, 1080i50, and 1080i59.94. Generally this type of video runs at up to 40 megabits per second, compared to the 3.5 megabits per second for conventional standard definition broadcasts.[14]

Smartphones[edit]

Smartphones with 1080p FullHD display have been available on the market since 2013. There are different brands that offers this resolution on their flagship phones' screens.

Internet content[edit]

Several websites, including YouTube, allow videos to be uploaded in the 1080p format. Digital distribution services also deliver 1080p content, such as movies available on Blu-ray Disc and/or from broadcast sources. This can include distribution services like peer-to-peer websites and public or private tracking networks.

Netflix will be offering SuperHD content in the US and other countries through select internet providers starting in 2013.[15]

Consumer televisions and projectors[edit]

As of 2012, most consumer televisions being sold provide 1080p inputs mainly via HDMI and support full high-def resolutions. 1080p resolution is available in all types of television, including plasma, LCD, DLP front and rear projection and LCD projection.

For displaying film-based 1080i60 signals, a scheme called 3:2 pulldown reversal (reverse telecine) is beginning to appear in some newer 1080p displays, which can produce a true 1080p quality image from film-based 1080i60 programs. Similarly, 25fps content broadcast at 1080i50 may be deinterlaced to 1080p content with no loss of quality or resolution.

The AV equipment manufacturing industry has adopted the term Full HD as the consumer-friendly marketing term to mean the set is a safe purchase because it can display all available HD resolutions up to 1080p. The term is misleading, however, because it does not guarantee the set is capable of rendering digital video at all frame rates encoded in source files with 1080 pixel vertical resolution. Most notably, a "Full HD" set is not guaranteed to support the 1080p24 format, leading to consumer confusion.[citation needed]

DigitalEurope (formerly EICTA) maintains the HD ready 1080p logo program that requires the certified TV sets to support 1080p24, 1080p50, and 1080p60, without overscan/underscan and picture distortion.

Computer monitors[edit]

Most widescreen cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors can natively display 1080p content. For example, widescreen WUXGA monitors support 1920x1200 resolution, which can display a pixel for pixel reproduction of the 1080p (1920x1080) format. Additionally, many 23, 24, and 27-inch (690 mm) widescreen LCD monitors use 1920x1200 as their native resolution; 30 inch displays can display beyond 1080p at up to 2560x1600 (1600p). Many 27" monitors have native resolutions of 2560x1440 and hence operate at 1440p.

Video game consoles[edit]

Video game consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 3, Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii U, as well as microconsoles like OUYA, GameStick and Nvidia Shield can display upscaled games and video content in 1080p, although the vast majority of games are rendered at lower resolutions.[16] For all of the consoles, this is done through HDMI connections (in the case of the Xbox 360, HDMI is only available on consoles manufactured after June 2007). Additionally, the upscaled 1080p video is available on the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 via an analog component/D-Terminal (YPBPR) connection, as well as the VGA connection on the Xbox 360. On the PlayStation 3, developers must provide specific resolution support at the software level as there is no hardware upscaling support, whereas on the Xbox 360 games can be upscaled using a built in hardware scaler chip. However, most games on both consoles do not run at a native 1080p resolution.

The Wii U, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 provide 1080p video services. Sony provides both the PlayStation Store VOD service and Blu-ray Disc playback.[17][18] Microsoft provides the Zune Video Marketplace for "instant on" 1080p video content but does not have Blu-ray disc playback capability. It does however support the now-defunct HD DVD disc standard via the Xbox 360 HD DVD Player add-on. Both consoles also offer support for streaming 1080p content in various formats over home network from other computers, and also via USB connection to external storage devices.

^† Due to potential copyright issues, when an analog component connection is used, only system menus and gameplay are available in 1080p; video content is displayed at a lower resolution or in 1080i.
^‡ While 1080p analog component output is supported by the consoles, some display hardware will only accept component connections up to 1080i.

Camcorders and cameras[edit]

Many consumer camcorders, professional video and DSLR cameras, and smartphones can capture 1080p24, 1080p25, or 1080p30 video, often encoding it in progressive segmented frame format.

As of 2012, there are a few consumer AVCHD/NXCAM camcorders that can capture 1080p50 and 1080p60 video, including the Panasonic HDC-TM700/HDC-HS700/HDC-SD700/HDC-SD600,[19] HC-X900/HC-X800 and HC-V700/HC-V500 camcorders and HDC-Z10000[20] stereoscopic camcorder, the Sanyo Xacti VPC-HD2000,[21] and the Sony Handycam NEX-VG20,[22] NEX-VG30,[23] NEX-VG900,[24] NEX-FS100,[25] and NEX-EA50EH.[26]

Professional digital cinema cameras capable of capturing 1080p60 include the Sony CineAlta F23 camera, Sony SRW9000 camcorder and HDC2000/2400/2500/2550/2570 multi-format cameras (with optional 60p upgrade installed),[27] Sony PMW-F3/PMW-F5/PMW-F55[28][29][30] camcorders, RED One/Epic/Scarlett, Canon EOS C500[31] cameras (in 2K capturing modes), and Hitachi SK-HD1200/HD2200 production cameras[32][33] and SK-HD1500 high-speed camera.

Digital SLR cameras such as the Sony Alpha 57,[34] Sony Alpha 77, and Canon EOS-1D C[35] can also record video at 1080p50 and 1080p60. Some point-and-shoot bridge cameras, such as the Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ150 and DMC-FZ200 and Sony Cybershot DSC-HX200V, are also capable of recording 1080p60 video.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brian L. Clark (13 March 2006). "What's this 1080p Stuff?". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 16 July 2007. 
  2. ^ Poynton, Charles. "Charles Poynton – square pixels and 1080". Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  3. ^ Wiedemann, Steve. "24/P HDTV: The Fall of Film Production". Filmmaking careers. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "EBU R115-2005: Future high definition television systems" (PDF). EBU. May 2005. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009. 
  5. ^ "Tech 3299: High Definition (HD) Image Formats for Television Production" (PDF). EBU. December 2004. Archived from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c "IBC 2011: 10 things you need to know about... 1080p/50" (PDF). EBU. September 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c "Technical Report 14: What follows HDTV? A status report on 1080p/50 and '4k'" (PDF). EBU. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-13. 
  8. ^ "Interoperability and File-based production for HDTV: How far away is 1080p/50,60 from mainstream production?" (PDF). EBU. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  9. ^ HDTV (FAQ), ATD [verification needed]
  10. ^ "Technical Report 008: HDTV Contribution Codecs" (PDF). EBU. March 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  11. ^ a b EBU (March 2009). "EBU – TECH 3333: HDTV Receiver Requirements" (PDF). EBU. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  12. ^ "ETSI TS 101 154 V1.9.1". Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  13. ^ "Force Film, IVTC, and Deinterlacing – what is DVD2AVI trying to tell you and what can you do about it". Doom9.org. 18 April 2003. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association (May 2005). "White paper, Blu-ray Disc Format, 2.B Audio Visual Application Format Specifications for BD-ROM". Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  15. ^ Lawler, Richard (2013-01-08). "Netflix launches 'Super HD' and 3D streaming - but only through certain ISPs". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  16. ^ Gilbert, Ben. "Wii U is 1080p; has HDMI out, internal flash memory, SD and USB storage support". WiiUDaily. WiiUDaily. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  17. ^ Movies & TV, PlayStation 
  18. ^ Blu-ray Disc Movies, PlayStation 
  19. ^ "HDC-HS700/HDC-TM700/HDC-SD700/HDC-SD600 | HD Camcorder". Panasonic. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  20. ^ "HDC-Z10000 | HD Camcorder". Panasonic. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  21. ^ "Digital Camera | Full HD | VPC-HD2000 | Xacti SANYO". Sanyo. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  22. ^ "NEX-VG20 Interchangeable Lens HD Handycam Camcorder and Lens". USA: Sony. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  23. ^ "NEX-VG30 Interchangeable Lens HD Camcorder". USA: Sony. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "NEX-VG900 Interchangeable Lens HD Camcorder". USA: Sony. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Product Detail Page NEXFS100UK". Sony. 30 January 2000. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  26. ^ Dent, Steve (2012-08-17). "Sony unveils NEX-EA50EH pro camcorder with nary a dog or pony (video)". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  27. ^ "Cameras – Broadcast & Production | CineAlta". Sony. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  28. ^ "Product Detail Page PMWF3L/RGB". Sony. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  29. ^ "Sony PMW-F55". Sony. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  30. ^ "Sony PWM-F55". Sony. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  31. ^ "Canon working on Cinema EOS C500 4K professional rig". Digital Photography Review. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  32. ^ "Broadcast and Studio Production Cameras : Hitachi Kokusai Electric America, Ltd". Hitachikokusai.us. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  33. ^ "SK-HD2200 SK-HD1200". Hitachi-kokusai.co.jp. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  34. ^ "Sony outs Alpha A57 translucent mirror camera with 12fps shooting, improved autofocus system". Engadget. 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  35. ^ "Canon announces EOS-1D C 4K DSLR with 8-bit 4:2:2 1080p HDMI output". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  36. ^ "Panasonic DMC-FZ200 Competitors". Snapsort. Retrieved 2012-10-19. 

External links[edit]