10 metre air rifle

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10 metre air rifle
Air-rifle-shooting.jpg
Men
Number of shots: 60+10
Olympic Games: Since 1984
World Championships: Since 1970
Abbreviation: AR60
Women
Number of shots: 40+10
Olympic Games: Since 1984
World Championships: Since 1970
Abbreviation: AR40

10 metre air rifle is an International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) shooting event, shot over a distance of 10 metres (10.94 yards) from a standing position with a 4.5 mm (0.177 in) calibre air rifle with a maximum weight of 5.5 kg (12.13 lb). The use of specialised clothing is allowed to improve the stability of the shooting position and prevent chronic back injury which can be caused by the asymmetric offset load on the spine when the rifle is held in position. It is one of the ISSF-governed shooting events included in the Olympic games.

Shots are fired from the standing position only, as opposed to some other airgun shooting disciplines such as for three positions (popular in the United States) or in disabled sports.

The major competitions are the Olympic Games every four years and the ISSF World Shooting Championships every four years (the Games and the Championships are held two years apart). In addition, the event is included in the ISSF World Cup series, the ISSF World Cup Final, in continental championships, and in many other international and national competitions. It is an indoor sport. In many clubs and ranges, electronic targets are now being used instead of the traditional paper targets.

Scores in 10 metre air rifle have improved rapidly during the last few decades and today top competitors sometimes achieve maximum results (a "possible") for the initial or qualification phase (600 for men and 400 for women). The majority of these full marks were achieved at non-directly ISSF supervised international and national-level matches and championships, where official ISSF recognized world records can not be set.[1] This leads to many national records in fact being equal to the world records. The maximum achievable aggregate score (qualification + final score) is 709 for men and 509 for women. Up to 2013 no top competitor has achieved an official perfect aggregate score.

Rules[edit]

Qualification Round[edit]

The course of fire is an unlimited number of sighter shots followed by 60 competition shots for men or 40 competition shots for women, all fired within 105 minutes for men or 75 minutes for women. During this initial or qualification phase a maximum of 10 points are awarded for each shot.

Finals[edit]

Up until 2012, the top eight shooters from the qualification phase move on to a finals event consisting of 10 shots – each scored to a maximum of 10.9 – with the cumulative score determining the winner (qualification + finals score). The maximum of 10.9 is derived from an additional set of 10 rings within the center 10-point circle, increasing in 0.1 point value as the rings approach the center of the target.

In November 2012, The ISSF announced new finals rules for 2013-2016.[2] The new finals has shooters starting from zero, eliminating the qualification scores that used to be combined with the finals scores for competition results. The new format begins with 2 series of 3 shots each, to be fired within 150 seconds per series. This is followed by 14 single shots each fired on command with 50 seconds for each shot. Eliminations of the lowest scoring finalists begin after the eighth shot (series + first 2 single shots) and continue after every two shots, until the gold and silver medalists are decided. There are a total of 20 finals shots. If there is a tie for the lowest ranking athlete to be eliminated, the tied athletes will fire additional tie-breaking single shots until the tie is broken.

Equipment[edit]

For the 10 metre air rifle and air pistol disciplines match diabolo pellets are used. These pellets have wadcutter heads, meaning the front is (nearly) flat, that leave clean round holes in paper targets for easy scoring. Match pellets are offered in tins and more elaborate packagings that avoid deformation and other damage that could impair their uniformity.

Match air rifle shooters are encouraged to perform shooting group tests with their gun clamped in a machine rest to establish which particular match pellet type performs best for their particular air gun.[3] To facilitate maximum performance out of various air guns the leading match pellet manufacturers produce pellets with graduated "head sizes", which means the pellets are offered with front diameters from 4.48 mm (0.176 in) up to 4.52 mm (0.178 in).

However at higher and top competitive levels, even these variations are thought too coarse-grained and match pellets are batch tested; that is, the specific gun is mounted in a machine rest test rig and pellets from a specific production run on a specific machine with the same ingredients fed into the process (a batch) are test-fired through the gun.[4] Many different batches will be tested in this manner, and the pellets which give the smallest consistent group size without fliers (shots which fall outside of the main group) will be selected (small but inconsistent group sizes are not useful to a top competitor); and the shooter will then purchase several tens of thousands of pellets from that batch. Group sizes of 4.5 mm (0.177 in) diameter are theoretically possible, but practically shot groups of 5.0 mm (0.197 in) are considered highly competitive.[5] Unbatched ammunition, especially if the air gun is not regularly cleaned, is generally thought to be capable of only 8.0 mm (0.315 in) diameter group sizes. Batch testing match pellets for a particular gun is not generally thought to be worthwhile until the shooter reaches a high proficiency level (around the 95% level i.e 570 for men, 380 for women).

The occurrence of full marks scores is mainly due to the continuous development of the employed match air rifles from spring-piston type designs into single-stroke pneumatic and pre-charged pneumatic (PCP) designs. Modern PCP match rifles from the leading manufacturers all feature fast lock times, shoot practically recoilless and vibration free, exhibit minimal movement and balance shifts and can be tailored by an adjustable aluminum stock and other user interfaces and various accessories to the individual shooters personal preferences to promote comfortable and accurate shooting from a standing position. Combined with appropriate match pellets these rifles produce a consistent 10 ring performance, so a non-maximal result during the initial phase can be attributed to the participant.

A typical 10 m air rifle PCP match air rifle
The target: total Ø = 45.5 mm. 4 ring Ø = 30.5 mm. 9 ring Ø = 5.5 mm. 10 ring Ø = 0.5 mm, height 1.4 m above the floor
A typical 4.5 mm (.177 in) 10 m air rifle match pellet


Gallery[edit]

World Championships, Men[edit]

Year Place Gold Silver Bronze
1966 Wiesbaden  Gerd Kuemmet (FRG)  Auguste Hollenstein (SUI)  Lajos Papp (HUN)
1970 Phoenix  Gottfried Kustermann (FRG)  Klaus Zaehringer (FRG)  Rolf Blomberg (SWE)
1974 Thun  Eugeniusz Pedzisz (POL)  Lanny Bassham (USA)  David Kramer (USA)
1978 Seoul  Oswald Schlipf (FRG)  Barry Dagger (GBR)  Zuccoli G. (ITA)
1979 Seoul  Walter Hillenbrand (FRG)  Hans Braem (SUI)  Barry Dagger (GBR)
1981 Santo Domingo  Pascal Bessy (FRA)  Daniel Nipkow (SUI)  Kurt Rieth (FRG)
1982 Caracas  Frank Rettkowski (GDR)  Pierre Alain Dufaux (SUI)  Andreas Wolfram (GDR)
1983 Innsbruck  Philippe Heberlé (FRA)  Juri Zavolodko (URS)  Frank Rettkowski (GDR)
1985 Mexico City  Philippe Heberlé (FRA)  Bernhard Suess (FRG)  Andreas Kronthaler (AUT)
1986 Suhl  Johann Riederer (FRG)  Daniel Durben (USA)  Bernhard Suess (FRG)
1987 Budapest  Kirill Ivanov (URS)  Matthew Suggs (USA)  Harald Stenvaag (NOR)
1989 Sarajevo  Jean-Pierre Amat (FRA)  Juri Fedkin (URS)  Olaf Hess (GDR)
1990 Moscow  Johann Riederer (FRG)  Rajmond Debevec (YUG)  Masaru Yanagida (JPN)
1991 Stavanger  Harald Stenvaag (NOR)  Eugeni Aleinikov (URS)  Nils Petter Haakedal (NOR)
1994 Milan  Boris Polak (ISR)  Anatoli Klimenko (BLR)  Frank Dobler (GER)
1998 Barcelona  Artem Khadjibekov (RUS)  Jozef Gönci (SVK)  Kean Bae Chae (KOR)
2002 Lahti  Jason Parker (USA)  Li Jie (CHN)  Eugeni Aleinikov (RUS)
2006 Zagreb  Abhinav Bindra (IND)  Alin George Moldoveanu (ROM)  Qinan Zhu (CHN)

World Championships, Men Team[edit]

Year Place Gold Silver Bronze
1966 Wiesbaden Switzerland
Auguste Hollenstein
Erwin Vogt
Hans Simonet
Kurt Mueller
Federal Republic of Germany
Gerd Kuemmet
Ernst Beith
Bernd Klingner
Gunter Vetter
Soviet Union
Ludwig Lustberg
Eduard Jarosh
Vladimir Konyakhin
Vassily Borisov
1970 Phoenix Federal Republic of Germany
Peter Kohnke
Bernd Klingner
Gottfried Kustermann
Klaus Zaehringer
United States of America
Lanny Bassham
David Boyd
John Robert Foster
Lones Wigger
German Democratic Republic
Dieter Munzert
Hartmut Sommer
Helman Uhlemann
Uto Wunderlich
1974 Thun Federal Republic of Germany
Franz Hamm
Gottfried Kustermann
Bernd Ramms
Wolfgang Ruehle
United States of America
Lanny Bassham
David Cramer
Edward Schumacher
John Writer
Poland
Stanislaw Marucha
Eugeniusz Pedzisz
Romuald Simionov
Andrzej Trajda
1978 Seoul Federal Republic of Germany
Kurt Hillenbrand
Gottfried Kustermann
Oswald Schlipf
Werner Seibold
United States of America
John Akemon
Lanny Bassham
Kurt Fitz Randolph
David Kimes
Korea
Gyong Hwan Bae
Ja Hyoun Myoung
Jang Woon Seo
Deok Ha Yoon
1979 Seoul Switzerland
Kuno Bertschy
Hans Braem
Hansueli Minder
Anton Mattle
United States of America
David Cramer
Ray Carter
Michael Gross
Ernest van de Zande
Great Britain
Malcolm Cooper
John Churchill
Barry Dagger
Robert Joyce
1981 Santo Domingo Federal Republic of Germany
Walter Hillenbrand
Kurt Hillenbrand
Kurt Rieth
Oswald Schlipf
France
Pascal Bessy
Patrice de Mullenheim
Daniel Labrune
Dominique Maquin
Norway
Amund Bjerbnes
Arnt-Olav Haugland
Per Erik Lokken
Harald Stenvaag
1982 Caracas Norway
Arnt-Olav Haugland
Per Erik Lokken
Svien Sotberg
Harald Stenvaag
Federal Republic of Germany
Kurt Hillenbrand
Kurt Rieth
Oswald Schlipf
Bernhard Suess
German Democratic Republic
Bernd Hartstein
Sven Martini
Frank Rettkowski
Andreas Wolfram
1983 Innsbruck France
Jean-Pierre Amat
Michel Bury
Philippe Heberlé
Federal Republic of Germany
Peter Heinz
Bernhard Suess
Hubert Suess
Soviet Union
Alexander Mitrofanov
Viktor Vlasov
Juri Zavolodko
1985 Mexico City France
Jean-Pierre Amat
Philippe Heberlé
Dominique Maquin
Yugoslavia
Rajmond Debevec
Sacir Dzeko
Goran Maksimovic
Federal Republic of Germany
Kurt Hillenbrand
Walter Hillenbrand
Bernhard Suess
1986 Suhl Federal Republic of Germany
Johann Riederer
Hubert Suess
Bernhard Suess
United States of America
Daniel Durben
Kurt Fitz Randolph
Robert Foth
Norway
Arnt-Olav Haugland
Harald Stenvaag
Kare Inge Viken
1987 Budapest United States of America
Daniel Durben
Robert Foth
Matthew Suggs
Yugoslavia
Rajmond Debevec
Sacir Dzeko
Goran Maksimovic
Soviet Union
Juri Fedkin
Kirill Ivanov
Juri Zavolodko
1989 Sarajevo France
Jean-Pierre Amat
Franck Badiou
Nicolas Berthelot
Soviet Union
Viatcheslav Botchkarev
Juri Fedkin
Sergei Martynov
Federal Republic of Germany
Hannes Hirschvogel
Johann Riederer
Matthias Stich
1990 Moscow Federal Republic of Germany
Hannes Hirschvogel
Johann Riederer
Matthias Stich
German Democratic Republic
Olaf Hess
Sven Martini
Frank Rettkowski
Korea
Young Chul Cha
Tae Jin Eom
Jung Mo Yoo
1991 Stavanger Norway
Nils Petter Haakedal
Leif Steinar Rolland
Harald Stenvaag
Soviet Union
Eugeni Aleinikov
Juri Fedkin
Sergei Schedrin
Germany
Hannes Hirschvogel
Johann Riederer
Matthias Stich
1994 Milan Belarus
Anatoli Klimenko
Georgi Nekhaev
Sergei Martynov
Czech Republic
Milan Bakes
Petr Kurka
Dalimil Nejezchleba
Russia
Juri Fedkin
Artem Khadjibekov
Sergei Schedrin
1998 Barcelona Russia
Artem Khadjibekov
Eugeni Aleinikov
Konstantin Prikhodtchenko
Korea
Kean Bae Chae
Young Sueb Lim
Jung Jun Ko
Slovakia
Jozef Gönci
Miroslav Svorada
Peter Bubernik
2002 Lahti Russia
Konstantin Prikhodtchenko
Eugeni Aleinikov
Artem Khadjibekov
People's Republic of China
Li Jie
Fu Zhang
Yalin Cai
United States of America
Jason Parker
Matthew Emmons
Troy Bassham
2006 Zagreb People's Republic of China
Li Jie
Qinan Zhu
Lei Zhang
Russia
Konstantin Prikhodtchenko
Denis Sokolov
Serguei Kruglov
Austria
Christian Planer
Thomas Farnik
Mario Knoegler

World Championships, Women[edit]

Year Place Gold Silver Bronze
1970 Phoenix  Tamara Cherkasova (URS)  Desanka Perovic (YUG)  Tatiana Ratnikova (URS)
1974 Thun  Tatiana Ratnikova (URS)  Kira Boiko (URS)  Baiba Zarina (URS)
1978 Seoul  Wanda Oliver (USA)  Karen Monez (USA)  Nam Soon Park (KOR)
1979 Seoul  Karen Monez (USA)  Wanda Jewell (USA)  Kyung Ok Chung (KOR)
1981 Santo Domingo  Svetlana Komaristova (URS)  Thoril Brodahl-Radet (NOR)  Young Mi Kim (KOR)
1982 Caracas  Sigrid Lang (FRG)  Lessia Leskiv (URS)  Marlies Helbig (GDR)
1983 Innsbruck  Marlies Helbig (GDR)  Xiaoxuan Wu (CHN)  Silvia Sperber (FRG)
1985 Mexico City  Eva Forian (HUN)  Barbara Troeger (AUT)  Vesela Letcheva (BUL)
1986 Suhl  Vesela Letcheva (BUL)  Valentina Cherkasova (URS)  Deena Wigger (USA)
1987 Budapest  Vesela Letcheva (BUL)  Irene Dufaux Suter (SUI)  Birgit Zeiske (FRG)
1989 Sarajevo  Vesela Letcheva (BUL)  Anna Maloukhina (URS)  Nonka Matova (BUL)
1990 Moscow  Eva Joo (HUN)  Renata Mauer (POL)  Jolande Swinkels (NED)
1991 Stavanger  Eva Forian (HUN)  Svitlana Seledkova (URS)  Wera Stamm (GER)
1994 Milan  Sonja Pfeilschifter (GER)  Christine Chuard (FRA)  Renata Mauer (POL)
1998 Barcelona  Sonja Pfeilschifter (GER)  Renata Mauer (POL)  Jung Mi Kim (KOR)
2002 Lahti  Kateřina Kůrková (CZE)  Li Du (CHN)  Sonja Pfeilschifter (GER)
2006 Zagreb  Li Du (CHN)  Kateřina Kůrková (CZE)  Olga Dovgun (KAZ)
2010 Munich  Yi Siling (CHN)  Wu Liuxi (CHN)  Elania Nardelli (ITA)

World Championships, Women Team[edit]

Year Place Gold Silver Bronze
1970 Phoenix Yugoslavia
Magdalena Herold
Mirjana Masic
Desanka Perovic
Soviet Union
Tamara Cherkasova
Lucia Fagereva
Tatiana Ratnikova
Federal Republic of Germany
Ingrid Kappes
Monika Riesterer
Anneliese Rhomberg
1974 Thun Soviet Union
Kira Boiko
Tatiana Ratnikova
Baiba Zarina
Poland
Elzbieta Janik
Elzbieta Kowalewska
Irena Wierzbowska-Mlotkowska
Federal Republic of Germany
Elke Becker
Elisabeth Bals
Elisabeth Boehmer
1978 Seoul United States of America
Karen Monez
Wanda Oliver
Sue Ann Sandusky
Korea
Young Soon Kim
Nam Soon Park
Joo Hee Yoo
Federal Republic of Germany
Elisabeth Bals
Monika Sonnet
Jutta Sperlich
1979 Seoul United States of America
Becky Braun
Wanda Jewell
Karen Monez
Korea
Kyung Ok Chung
Nam Soon Park
Duk Nam Yoon
Great Britain
Sarah Cooper
Leslie Dodds
Irene Daw
1981 Santo Domingo Soviet Union
Baiba Berklava
Valentina Cherkasova
Svetlana Komaristova
Norway
Thoril Brodahl-Radet
Elisabeth Brodahl
Anne Grethe Jeppesen
Bulgaria
Anna Kirova
Vesela Letcheva
Anka Pelova
1982 Caracas German Democratic Republic
Gilda Gorzkulla
Marlies Helbig
Marlies Moch
United States of America
Wanda Jewell
Karen Monez
Gloria Parmentier
Soviet Union
Svetlana Komaristova
Lessia Leskiv
Anna Malakhova
1983 Innsbruck Federal Republic of Germany
Ulrike Holmer
Sigrid Lang
Silvia Sperber
Hungary
Eva Forian
Kiss Eva Herrne
Laszlone Hunyadi
Soviet Union
Svetlana Komaristova
Marina Kuznetsova
Lessia Leskiv
1985 Mexico City Bulgaria
Krassimira Dontcheva
Vesela Letcheva
Nonka Matova
United States of America
Mary Godlove
Mary Schweitzer
Pat Spurgin
Hungary
Eva Forian
Laszlone Hunyadi
Agnes Szasz
1986 Suhl Finland
Leena Melartin Thune
Pirjo Peltola
Sirpa Ylönen
Switzerland
Gaby Buehlmann
Irene Dufaux Suter
Vreni Ryter
Soviet Union
Valentina Cherkasova
Anna Maloukhina
Marina Suslova
1987 Budapest Bulgaria
Krassimira Dontcheva
Vesela Letcheva
Nonka Matova
Federal Republic of Germany
Heike Goette
Carmen Giese
Birgit Zeiske
Soviet Union
Anna Maloukhina
Natalia Oleneva
Irina Shevtsova
1989 Sarajevo Bulgaria
Vesela Letcheva
Nonka Matova
Anitza Valkova
Soviet Union
Valentina Cherkasova
Anna Maloukhina
Svitlana Seledkova
Hungary
Marta Bogdan
Eva Forian
Eva Joo
1990 Moscow United States of America
Launi Meili
Kristen Peterson
Deena Wigger
Hungary
Bernadette Fehrentheil
Eva Forian
Eva Joo
Soviet Union
Valentina Cherkasova
Anna Maloukhina
Iryna Shylava
1991 Stavanger Soviet Union
Valentina Cherkasova
Svitlana Seledkova
Iryna Shylava
Hungary
Bernadette Fehrentheil
Eva Forian
Eva Joo
United States of America
Elizabeth Bourland
Launi Meili
Debora Sinclair
1994 Milan Germany
Petra Horneber
Bettina Knells
Sonja Pfeilschifter
Russia
Valentina Cherkasova
Irina Gerasimenok
Anna Maloukhina
Korea
Eun Joo Lee
Mi Ran Oh
Kab Soon Yeo
1998 Barcelona Germany
Sonja Pfeilschifter
Petra Horneber
Dunja Beilharz
People's Republic of China
Yinghui Zhao
Hong Shan
Xian Wang
Spain
Marina Pons
Cristina Antolin
Marta Antolin
2002 Lahti People's Republic of China
Li Du
Jing Gao
Yinghui Zhao
Korea
Sun Hwa Seo
Hyung Mi Kim
Dae Young Choi
Ukraine
Natallia Kalnysh
Lessia Leskiv
Nataliya Omelyanenko
2006 Zagreb Germany
Sonja Pfeilschifter
Barbara Lechner
Sylvia Aumann
People's Republic of China
Li Du
Yinghui Zhao
Jieyi Tang
Russia
Marina Bobkova
Tatiana Goldobina
Lioubov Galkina
2010 Munich Germany
Jessica Mager
Beate Gauss
Sonja Pfeilschifter
People's Republic of China
Yi Siling
Wu Liuxi
Liu Qing
US
Meghann Morrill
Jamie Lynn Gray
Emily Caruso

World Championships, total medals[edit]

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  West Germany 14 6 9 29
2  USSR 7 12 10 29
3  United States 7 12 4 23
4  France 7 2 0 9
5  Bulgaria 6 0 3 9
6  Germany 5 0 4 9
7  China 3 6 1 10
8  Hungary 3 3 3 9
9  Norway 3 2 4 9
10  Russia 3 2 3 8
11  East Germany 3 1 6 10
12   Switzerland 2 6 0 8
13  Yugoslavia 1 4 0 5
14  Poland 1 3 2 6
15  Czech Republic 1 2 0 3
16  Belarus 1 1 0 2
17  Finland 1 0 0 1
17  India 1 0 0 1
17  Israel 1 0 0 1
20  South Korea 0 4 8 12
21  Great Britain 0 1 3 4
22  Austria 0 1 2 3
23  Slovakia 0 1 1 2
24  Romania 0 1 0 1
25  Italy 0 0 1 1
25  Japan 0 0 1 1
25  Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
25  Netherlands 0 0 1 1
25  Spain 0 0 1 1
25  Sweden 0 0 1 1
25  Ukraine 0 0 1 1
Total 70 70 70 210

Current world records[edit]

Current world records in 10 metre air rifle
Men Qualification 600  Tevarit Majchacheep (THA)
 Denis Sokolov (RUS)
 Gagan Narang (IND)
 Gagan Narang (IND)
 Zhu Qinan (CHN)
January 27, 2000
March 1, 2008
November 5, 2008
October 6, 2010
September 22, 2011
Langkawi (MAS)
Winterthur (SUI)
Bangkok (THA)
New Delhi (IND)
Wrocław (POL)
edit
Final 703.8  Zhu Qinan (CHN) (600+103.8) September 22, 2011 Wrocław (POL) edit
Teams 1792  China (Zhu, Wang, Liu) January 13, 2012 Doha (QAT) edit
Junior Men Individual 599  Cheon Min-ho (KOR)
 Zhu Qinan (CHN)
 Zhu Qinan (CHN)
 Sergy Rikhter (ISR)
April 24, 2004
August 16, 2004
October 30, 2004
May 16, 2009
Athens (GRE)
Athens (GRE)
Bangkok (THA)
Munich (GER)
edit
Teams 1774  Slovakia (Baláž, Homola, Jancek) March 26, 2004 Győr (HUN) edit
Women Qualification 400  Seo Sun-hwa (KOR)
 Gao Jing (CHN)
 Lioubov Galkina (RUS)
 Du Li (CHN)
 Lioubov Galkina (RUS)
 Suma Shirur (IND)
 Lioubov Galkina (RUS)
 Monika Haselsberger (AUT)
 Barbara Lechner (GER)
 Zhao Yinghui (CHN)
 Wu Liuxi (CHN)
 Du Li (CHN)
 Sonja Pfeilschifter (GER)
 Kateřina Emmons (CZE)
 Lioubov Galkina (RUS)
April 12, 2002
April 22, 2002
August 24, 2002
June 4, 2003
June 14, 2003
February 13, 2004
February 22, 2004
April 22, 2004
March 5, 2005
April 11, 2005
June 11, 2005
October 4, 2006
May 24, 2008
August 9, 2008
November 5, 2008
Sydney (AUS)
Shanghai (CHN)
Munich (GER)
Zagreb (CRO)
Munich (GER)
Kuala Lumpur (MAS)
Bangkok (THA)
Athens (GRE)
Tallinn (EST)
Changwon (KOR)
Munich (GER)
Granada (ESP)
Milan (ITA)
Beijing (CHN)
Bangkok (THA)
edit
Final 505.6  Yi Siling (CHN) (400+105.6) August 1, 2010 Munich (GER) edit
Teams 1196  China (Du, Wu, Zhao) December 6, 2007 Kuwait City (KUW) edit
Junior Women Individual 400  Seo Sun-hwa (KOR)
 Zhang Yi (CHN)
April 12, 2002
December 6, 2007
Sydney (AUS)
Kuwait City (KUW)
edit
Teams 1188  South Korea (Choi, Kim, Seo) July 8, 2002 Lahti (FIN) edit

References[edit]

  1. ^ Records officially recognized by the ISSF
  2. ^ "New ISSF 2013-2016 Rules: competitions will start from zero, and end in a duel". International Shooting Sport Federation. 
  3. ^ "Air Gun Testing Target Pellets". Neal J. Guns Ecommerce Blog. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. 
  4. ^ Scott Pilkington (May–June 2008). "About Pellet Numbers and Pellet Testing". USA Shooting News. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  5. ^ Haendler & Natermann Finale Match Rifle