10th Brigade (Australia)
|10th Infantry Brigade|
Members of the 10th Brigade receiving medals on parade 7 July 1918
|Part of||3rd Division|
The 10th Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Australian Army. It was raised in 1916 as part of the expansion of the Australian Imperial Force following the end of the Gallipoli campaign and subsequently saw service on the Western Front in France and Belgium during the First World War. After the war it was disbanded but was re-raised in 1921 as a part-time formation based in the state of Victoria. During the Second World War the brigade was used in a garrison role in Australia before being disbanded in 1942.
It was initially formed in 1916 as an Australian Imperial Force formation for service during the First World War. Assigned to the 3rd Division, upon formation it consisted of four battalions—the 37th, 38th, 39th and 40th Battalions—which were raised in Victoria and Tasmania. In July 1916 the brigade sailed to England where it undertook further training before being committed to the fighting on the Western Front in late 1916. For the next two years they took part in many of the battles that the Australians fought in France and Belgium until the armistice in November 1918. Shortly before the end of the war, the brigade's establishment was reduced to three infantry battalions as one—the 37th—was disbanded in September in order to reinforce the other battalions. This was due to widespread manpower shortages in the AIF as a result of the high number of casualties suffered during the Hundred Days Offensive.
Following the end of the war, the 10th Brigade was disbanded, however, in 1921 it was re-raised as part of the Militia after it was decided to perpetuate the designations and battle honours of the AIF by reorganising Australia's part-time military force. At this time, the brigade was based in Victoria within the 3rd Military District and consisted of four infantry battalions: the 24th, 37th, 39th and 48th. On 1 May 1926 Thomas Blamey became commander of the brigade, remaining in the position until he took over the 3rd Division on 23 March 1931.
Upon the outbreak of the Second World War, the brigade was based in Victoria in September 1939, and assigned to the 3rd Division. On 8 December 1941 the brigade was mobilised for full-time duty as the Militia was called up for garrison and defensive duties following Japan's entry into the war. As part of the mobilisation process, the brigade was reorganised into a brigade-group formation with organic artillery, anti-tank and engineer support. Its establishment was also reduced from four infantry battalions to three as the Australian Army moved towards the British Army brigade structure. In September 1942, however, after moving to Queensland, it was disbanded—having not seen active service—as part of the reallocation of manpower resources that occurred within the Australian Army at that time. During the war, the 10th Brigade's subordinate units included: the 37th, 52nd, 24th/39th and 24th Battalions, as well as the 2nd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, the 10th Field Company, Royal Australian Engineers and the 23rd Anti-Tank Battery, Royal Australian Artillery.
- "10th Brigade". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "37th Battalion". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Grey (2008), p. 125.
- Palazzo (2002), p. 63.
- Horner (1998), pp. 104–113.
- "10 Infantry Brigade". Order of Battle. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "10 Infantry Brigade units". Order of Battle. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Grey, Jeffrey (2008). A Military History of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69791-0.
- Horner, David (1998). Blamey: The Commander-in-Chief. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-734-8.
- Palazzo, Albert (2002). Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916–1991. Loftus, New South Wales: Australian Military Historical Publications. ISBN 1-876439-03-3.