Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 10th century
10th century is the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.
The 10th century is usually regarded as a low point in European history. In China it was also a period of political upheaval. In the
Muslim World, however, it was a cultural zenith, especially in Spain under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, the 10th century was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires.
Medievalist and historian of technology
Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." Similarly, [1 ] Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." Even in the 15th century, [2 ] Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron and later Cardinal Baronius as the Leaden Century or Iron Century.
This statue of a
goddess was created in Kaveripakkam in
, during the 10th century.
Americas [ edit ]
Eurasia [ edit ]
Buddhist temple construction commences at Bagan, Burma In
907, Sumbing volcano erupted, according to Rukam inscription. In
907, King Balitung edicted Mantyasih inscription containing the list of Medang kings, moved the capital from Mamrati to Poh Pitu, and expanded Prambanan temple. In
910, Parantaka I of the Chola Dynasty drove out the Pandyan from southern India into Lanka (now Sri Lanka), which he also eventually conquered. In
914, The Warmadewa dynasty rules Bali. (to 1080) [3 ] In
919, the first use of gunpowder in battle occurred with the Chinese Battle of Lang-shan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River), where the naval fleet of the Wen-Mu-King defeated Chien Yuan Kuan because Wen had used 'fire oil' (huo yóu, 火油) of gunpowder- fuse ignited flamethrowers to burn Chien's fleet. In
928, Ziyarid dynasty was established in northern Iran. In
928, During the reign of King Wawa, the capital of Medang Kingdom in Mataram was devastated, probably by the massive eruption of Mount Merapi. In
929, Mpu Sindok moved the seat of power of the Medang Kingdom from Mataram in Central Java to Tamwlang in East Java and established Isyana Dynasty. The shift was probably as a result of the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya. [4 ] In
930s, Persian Shia Buyid dynasty established and controlled central and western part of Iran as well as most of Iraq. In
936, Goryeo Dynasty unified Later Three Kingdoms of Korea. In
937, Mpu Sindok moved the capital again from Tamwlang to Watugaluh, both near bank of Brantas River in modern Jombang in East Java. In
975, Ghaznavids dynasty, as the first Turk Sultanate, was established in Central Asia. In
980's, Dynastic marriage between princess Mahendradatta of Javanese Isyanas and king Udayana of Balinese Warmadewas. Coastal cities on the
Malay Peninsula are the seed for the first recorded Malay kingdoms In
990, King Dharmawangsa of Medang kingdom launches a naval invasion on Palembang in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Srivijaya. (to 1006) In
990, Airlangga, son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta was born in Bali.
993: the Arab maritime captain Abu Himyarite from Yemen traveled to Guangzhou port, China.
Seljuks convert to Islam. In
996, Dharmawangsa commissioned the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese. [5 ] In
999, Samanid dynasty was defeated and conquered by Ghaznavids.
Viking groups settle in northern France 907: Loire Vikings overrun
Brittany; Breton court flees to the England of Edward the Elder. The Norse become
Rollo granted County of Rouen by France: official foundation of Normandy. Foundation of
Cluny, first federated monastic order In
917 the Bulgarians destroyed the Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus, one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages
927: official recognition of the first independent national Church in Europe, the Bulgarian Patriarchate 927:
Kingdom of England becomes a unified state. c. 936:
Gorm the Old becomes the first recognized king of Denmark, and thus the Danish Monarchy is founded. 936:
Alan II, with support from Æthelstan, commences the reconquest of Brittany. Incursions of
Magyar (Hungarian) cavalry throughout Western Europe (47 expeditions in Germany, Italy and France, 899– 970)
Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian in 966 Collapse of
Great Moravia The medieval Croatian state becomes a
unified kingdom under Tomislav
Swedish influence extends to the Black Sea
Vladimir I, Prince of Kievan Rus, baptised a Christian in 988
Reindeer and Bears become extinct in Britain
Lions become extinct in Europe by this date, with the last dying in Caucasus. Second half of the 10th century – Page with David the Psalmist, from the
Paris Psalter, is made. It is now kept at Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris. Late 10th or early 11th century – Archangel Michail, icon, is made. It is now kept at Treasury of the Cathedral of Saint Mark,
Oceania [ edit ]
Significant people [ edit ]
Half-section of the
Night Revels of Han Xizai
Chinese artist Gu Hongzhong
, 10th century. A woman is seen entertaining guests with a
on the right-hand side.
Americas [ edit ]
Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, known as
Eurasia and Eastern Roman Empire [ edit ]
Adikavi Pampa an early Kannada language poet (born in 902)
Ranna, an early Kannada language poet from India, (born in 949)
Huyan Zan, Chinese general (died in 1000)
Li Cheng, Chinese landscape painter
Tailapa II, re-established the Western Chalukya Empire of India (reigned 973– 997)
Zhang Sixun, Chinese astronomer and mechanical engineer
Ferdowsi, Persian poet
Li Fang, Chinese scholar and encyclopedist ( 925– 996)
Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Chinese Song Dynasty (lived March 21, 927–November 14, 976, reigned 960– 976)
Parantaka I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty of India – Tamil King (reigned 907– 950)
Raja Raja Chola I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty of India – Tamil King
Avicenna, one of the foremost physician and philosopher of Medieval Era(c. 980 - 1037). [6 ]
Al-Farabi, a Muslim polymath and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers (c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951). [7 ]
Alhazen, a Muslim scientist and mathematician, (965 in Basra - c. 1039 in Cairo)
Abu Rayhan Biruni, a Muslim Scientist, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni)
Taejo of Goryeo, founder of the Korean Goryeo Dynasty (lived January 31, 877 – July 4, 943, reigned 918– 943)
Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, united Norway in 872 and remained its ruler until 933. One of the most powerful lords of Europe at the time.
Vladimir I, Prince of Kievan Rus (lived 958– 1015)
Tomislav, king of Croatia, united the medieval Croatian state into the Kingdom of Croatia, crowned in 925
Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba
Simeon the Great, Emperor of Bulgaria (reigned 893– 927)
Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 912– 973, reigned 936– 973) King
Edmund I of England (lived 921– 946, reigned 939– 946)
Hugh Capet (lived 938– 996), first Capetian King of France
Géza of Hungary, ruler of the Magyars (lived 940– 997, reigned 970– 997)
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 955– 983, reigned 973– 983)
Theophanu, wife of Otto II, mother and Regent of Otto III, (lived 956– 991, reigned 983– 991)
Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (lived 958– 1014, reigned 976– 1014)
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor (lived 980– 1002, reigned 983– 1002)
Erik the Red, Norwegian explorer, founded Greenland
Leif Eiriksson, Norwegian explorer, son of Erik the Red, made the first European attempt to settle in America.
Olav Tryggvason becomes the first king to try to Christianize Norway, dies at the Battle of Svolder in 1000.
Oceania [ edit ]
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]
Earliest known representation of a gun (a
) and a
(upper right), from the cave murals of
, China, 10th century.
Decades and years [ edit ]
^ Quoted in The Tenth Century: How Dark the Dark Ages?, edited by Robert Sabatino Lopez. Holt, Reinhart and Winston: 1959.
^ The Wandering Scholars. Constable and Co: London, 1927.
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.52
^ Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C Bagley. . Brill Archive. p. 252. The Muslim world : a historical survey, Part 4 ISBN 978-90-04-06196-5.
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.51
^ "Avicenna", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Version 2006". Iranica.com . Retrieved 2010-01-19.
^ Corbin, Henry; Nasr, Hossein; Yahya, Utman (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2.
Further reading [ edit ]