10th century in literature

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This is a summary of the 10th century in literature.


Works[edit]

Title Author Description Date
Book of Fixed Stars Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Treatise on astronomy including a star catalogue and star charts c. 964[1]
Paphnutius Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim Play c. 935-1002
Al-Tasrif Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi Medical encyclopedia Completed in 1000[2]
Josippon Joseph ben Gorion History of the Jews from the destruction of Babylon to the Siege of Jerusalem 940[3]
Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity Brethren of Purity Philosophical-scientific encyclopedia 10th century[4]
Aleppo Codex Shlomo ben Buya'aa Copy of the Bible 920[5]
De Administrando Imperio Constantine VII Political geography of the world c. 950[6]
Three Treatises on Imperial Military Expeditions Associated with Constantine VII Treatises providing information on military campaigns in Asia Minor Based on material compiled in the early 10th century, current form dates to the late 950s[7]
Geoponica Compiled under the patronage of Constantine VII Agricultural manual[8] Compiled in its present form in the 10th century[9]
Þórsdrápa Eilífr Goðrúnarson[10] Skaldic poem with Thor as its protagonist 10th century[11]
Hákonarmál Eyvindr skáldaspillir Poem composed in memory of Haakon I of Norway Probably 10th century[12]
"Háleygjatal" Eyvindr skáldaspillir Poem seeking to establish the Hlaðir dynasty as the social equal of the Hárfagri dynasty[13] End of the 10th century[14]
Kitab al-Aghani Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani Collection of songs, biographical information, and information relating to the lives and customs of the early Arabs and of the Muslim Arabs of the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates[15] 10th century[16]
Shahnameh Ferdowsi Epic poem Begun c. 977, finished 1010[17]
Benedictional of St. Æthelwold Godeman (a scribe) for Æthelwold of Winchester Benedictional including pontifical benedictions for use at mass at different points of the liturgical year Written and illuminated between 963 and 984[18]
Tactica of Emperor Leo VI the Wise Leo VI the Wise Handbook dealing with military formations and weapons Early 10th century[19]
Exeter Book Given to Exeter Cathedral by Bishop Leofric Collection of Old English poetry Copied c. 975[20]
"Deor" Given to Exeter Cathedral by Bishop Leofric (part of the Exeter Book)[20] The only surviving Old English poem with a fully developed refrain; possibly of a Norse background[21] Copied c. 975[20]
"The Rhyming Poem" Given to Exeter Cathedral by Bishop Leofric (part of the Exeter Book)[20] Poem in couplets utilising rhyme, which was rarely used in Anglo-Saxon literature[22] Copied c. 975[20]
Extensive Records of the Taiping Era Compiled by Li Fang Collection of anecdotes and stories 977–78[23]
Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era Compiled by Li Fang Encyclopedia 984[24]
Greek Anthology Originally compiled by Meleager, combined by Constantinus Cephalas with works by Philippus of Thessalonica, Diogenianus, Agathias and others; part of a later revision compiled by Maximus Planudes Collection of Greek epigrams, songs, epitaphs and rhetorical exercises Originally compiled in the 1st century BCE, expanded in the 9th century, revised and augmented in the 10th century, expanded again from a manuscript compiled in 1301[25]
Wamyō Ruijushō Compiled by Minamoto no Shitagō Collection of Japanese terms Mid-930s[26]
Gosen Wakashū Ordered by Emperor Murakami Imperial waka anthology c. 951[27]
Yamato Monogatari Unknown Uta monogatari (narrative fiction with waka poeetry) c. 951-956
History of the Prophets and Kings Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari Universal history Unfinished at the time of Tabari's death in 956[28]
Praecepta Militaria Attributed to Nikephoros II Phokas Military manual 965[29]
Escorial Taktikon Edited by Nikolaos Oikonomides (1972)[30] Precedence list Drawn up between 975 and 979[31]
Bodhi Vamsa Upatissa of Upatissa Nuwara Prose poem describing the bringing of a branch of the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century c. 980[32]
Old History of the Five Dynasties Xue Juzheng Account of China's Five Dynasties 974[33]
Chronicon Salernitanum Anonymous[34] Annals 974[35]
Gesta Berengarii imperatoris Anonymous[36] Epic poem Early 10th century[37]
Kokin Wakashū Compiled by a committee of bureaucrats recognised as superior poets Anthology of Japanese poetry Compiled c. 905[38]
Annales Cambriae Diverse sources Chronicle believed to cover a period beginning 447 c. 970[39]
Waltharius Unknown Frankish monk Epic poem about the Germanic Heroic Age First circulated/published c. 850 to c. 950[40]
Leofric Missal Unknown scribes Service book Core written c. 900, with an addition made c. 980[41]
"Eiríksmál" Unknown Poem composed in memory of Eric Bloodaxe Probably 10th century[12]
Khaboris Codex Unknown Oldest known copy of the New Testament 10th century[42]
Suda Unknown[43] Encyclopedia 10th century[44]
Tractatus coislinianus Unknown Manuscript containing a statement of a Greek theory of comedy 10th century[45]
Beowulf Unknown Epic Believed to have been written between the 7th and 10th centuries[46]
Ishinpō Tanba Yasunori Encyclopedia of Chinese medicine Issued in 982[47]
Hudud al-'alam Unknown Concise geography of the world Begun 982–983[48]
Ōjōyōshū Genshin Kanbun Buddhist text 985
Karnataka Kadambari Nagavarma I Romance in champu (mixed prose and verse) Late 10th century
Chhandombudhi Nagavarma I Treatise on prosody in Vijayanagara literature in Kannada c. 990
Tomida femina Anonymous Charm, the oldest known complete Occitan poem 10th century
The Battle of Maldon Anonymous Old English heroic poem (earliest manuscript lost 1731) Between the Battle of Maldon in Spring 991 and 1000?[49]

Authors[edit]

Name Description Dates
Abu Firas al-Hamdani Arab poet 932–968[50]
Abū Kāmil Shujāʿ ibn Aslam Algebraist c. 850 – c. 930[51]
Ælfric of Eynsham Author of homilies in Old English and translator of the Bible c. 955 – c. 1020[52]
Æthelweard Anglo-Saxon historian Before 973 – c. 998[53]
Akazome Emon Japanese waka poet fl. 976–1041[54]
Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri Philosopher born in modern Iran Died 992[55]
Al-Maʿarri Arab poet born near Aleppo, Syria 973–1057[56]
Al-Masudi Arab historian and geographer Before 893 – 956[57]
Al-Mutanabbi Arabic poet 915–965[58]
Ibn al-Nadim Author of the Fehrest, an encyclopedia c. 932 – 990[59]
Al-Natili Arabic-language author in the medical field fl. c. 985–90[60]
Alchabitius Author of Al-madkhal ilā sināʿat Aḥkām al-nujūm, a treatise on astrology; from Iraq fl. c. 950[61]
Aldred the Scribe Author of the glosses in the Lindisfarne Gospels 10th century[62]
Alhazen Mathematician, died in Cairo 965 – c. 1040[63]
Bal'ami Vizier to the Samanids and translator of the Ṭabarī into Persian Died c. 992–7[64]
Abu-Shakur Balkhi Persian writer 915–960s[65]
Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Persian Muslim polymath 849–934[66]
Rabia Balkhi Arabic- and Persian-language poet Died 940[67]
Bard Boinne Described in the Annals of the Four Masters as the "chief poet of Ireland" Died 932[68]
Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī Arab astronomer c. 850 – c. 929[69]
David ben Abraham al-Fasi Karaite lexicographer from Fes 10th century[70]
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Scholar and polymath of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids 973 – after 1050[71]
Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī Mathematician and astronomer; author of Kitāb fī mā yaḥtaj ilayh al-kuttāb wa’l-ʿummāl min ʾilm al-ḥisāb, an arithmetic textbook; of Persian descent 940 – 997 or 998[72]
Cináed ua hArtacáin Irish poet and author of dinsenchas poems Died 974[73]
Constantine VII Byzantine emperor and author of De Administrando Imperio and De Ceremoniis 905–959[74]
Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Poet, probably born in Ṭūs After 932 – c. 976[75]
Shabbethai Donnolo Italian physician and writer on medicine and astrology 913 – after 982[76]
Egill Skallagrímsson Viking skald and adventurer c. 910 – c. 990[77]
Eilífr Goðrúnarson Icelandic skald c. 1000[78]
Einarr Helgason Skald for Norwegian ruler Haakon Sigurdsson fl. late 10th century[79]
Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria Author of a history of the world and treatises on medicine and theology 876–940[80]
Eysteinn Valdason Icelandic skald c. 1000[81]
Eyvindr skáldaspillir Icelandic skald Died c. 990[82]
Al-Farabi Muslim philosopher c. 878 – c. 950[83]
Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani Literary scholar and author of an encyclopedic work on Arabic music 897–967[15]
Ferdowsi Persian poet and author of the Shahnameh, the Persian national epic c. 935 – c. 1020–26[84]
Flodoard French historian and chronicler 894–966[85]
Frithegod British poet, author of Breviloquium vitae Wilfridi, a version of Stephen of Ripon's Vita Sancti Wilfrithi written in hexameters fl. c. 950 – c. 958[86]
Fujiwara no Asatada One of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals c. 910 – c. 966[87]
Fujiwara no Kintō Japanese poet and critic responsible for the initial gathering of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals 966–1041[88]
Fujiwara no Takamitsu Japanese poet, one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals Died 994[87]
Fujiwara no Tametoki Japanese waka and kanshi poet and father of Murasaki Shikibu[89] Late 10th – early 11th century[90]
Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Japanese poet Died c. 901[91]
Kushyar Gilani Iranian astronomer fl. second half of the 10th/early 11th century[92]
Guthormr sindri Norwegian skald 10th century[93]
Nathan ben Isaac ha-Babli Babylonian historian 10th century[94]
Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Icelandic skald[95] Died c. 1007[96]
Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani Arabic belle-lettrist and inventor of the maqāma genre 968–1008[97]
Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī Arabian geographer Died 945[98]
Hovhannes Draskhanakerttsi Armenian man of letters c. 840 – c. 930[99]
Hrotsvitha German dramatist and poet c. 935 – c. 1002[100]
Ibn al-Faqih Persian historian and geographer Died 903[101]
Ibn al-Jazzar Physician Died 970/980[102]
Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Historian of Muslim Spain, born in Seville and of Visigothic descent[103] Died 977[104]
Ibn Duraid Arabian poet 837–934[105]
Ibn Hawqal Author of Kitāb al-masālik wa'l-mamālik, a book on geography; born in Nisibis Second half of the 10th century – after 988[106]
Ibn Juljul Author of Tabaqāt al atibbāʾ wa’l-hukamả, a summary of the history of medicine 944 – c. 994[107]
Ibn Khordadbeh Author on subjects including history, genealogy, geography, music, and wines and cookery; of Persian descent c. 820 – c. 912[108]
Ioane-Zosime Georgian religious writer, hymnographer and translator 10th century[109]
Lady Ise Japanese waka poet,[110] mother of Nakatsukasa[111] c. 877 – c. 940[110]
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon Physician and philosopher, born in Egypt 832–932[112]
Izumi Shikibu Japanese waka poet Born c. 976[113]
Abraham ben Jacob Spanish Jewish geographer fl. second half of the 10th century[114]
Jayadeva Indian mathematician Lived before 1073[115]
Al-Karaji Mathematician, lived in Baghdad 953 – c. 1029[116]
Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin Astronomer and number theorist from Khurasan c. 900 – c. 971[117]
Abu-Mahmud Khojandi Astronomer and mathematician born in Khujand c. 945 – 1000[118]
Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi Author of Mafātih al-’ulũm (Keys of the Sciences) fl. c. 975[119]
Ki no Tokibumi Japanese poet, one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber fl. c. 950[120]
Ki no Tomonori Japanese waka poet and one of the compilers of the Kokin Wakashū c. 850 – c. 904[121]
Ki no Tsurayuki Japanese waka poet, critic and diarist; one of the compilers of the Kokin Wakashū c. 872 – c. 945[122]
Kishi Joō Japanese poet and one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals 929–985[123]
Kiyohara no Motosuke Japanese poet: one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber[120] and the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals, and father of Sei Shōnagon[124] 908–990[120][124]
Leo the Deacon Byzantine historian Born c. 950[125]
Liutprand of Cremona Italian historian and author c. 922 – 972[126]
Luo Yin Japanese poet 833–909[127]
'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi Author of Kāmil al-Ṣinā’ah al-Tibbiyyah, a compendium; born near Shiraz First quarter of the 10th century – 994[128]
Abu Nasr Mansur Astronomer, born in Gīlān c. 950 – c. 1036[129]
Mansur Al-Hallaj Arabic-speaking mystic and author of the Ṭawāsin, a collection of 11 reflective essays; born near Beyza 857–922[130]
Ebn Meskavayh Persian writer on topics including history, theology, philosophy and medicine Died 1030[131]
Symeon the Metaphrast Principal compiler of the legends of saints in the Menologia of the Byzantine Church Second half of the 10th century[132]
Mibu no Tadamine Japanese waka poet[133] and one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals fl. 898–920[87]
Michitsuna no Haha Author of Kagerō nikki (The Gossamer Years) Died 995[134]
Minamoto no Kintada Japanese poet and one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals 889–948[87]
Minamoto no Muneyuki Japanese poet[135] Died 939[136]
Minamoto no Saneakira Japanese poet 916–970[137]
Minamoto no Shigeyuki Japanese poet Died c. 1000[138]
Minamoto no Shitagō Japanese poet: one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber[120] and the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals[87] 911–983[87][120]
Vācaspati Miśra Indian polymath 900–980[139]
Muhammad bin Hani al Andalusi al Azdi Poet born in Seville[140] Died 973[141]
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari Writer on theology, literature and history, born in Tabriz 839–923[142]
Al-Muqaddasi Arabian traveller and author of a Description of the Lands of Islam, an Arabic geography[143] c. 946–7 – 1000[144]
Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz Writer and, for one day, caliph of the Abbasid dynasty Died 908[145]
Nagavarma I Author of the Chandōmbudhi, the first treatise on Kannada metrics Late 10th century[146]
Nakatsukasa One of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals, daughter of Lady Ise c. 912 – after 989[111]
Al-Nayrizi Astronomer and meteorologist probably from Neyriz c. 865 – c. 922[147]
Jacob ben Nissim Philosopher, lived in Kairouan 10th century[148]
Nōin Japanese poet 988–1050?[149]
Notker Labeo German theologian, philologist, mathematician, astronomer, connoisseur of music, and poet c. 950 – 1022[150]
Odo of Cluny Author of a biography of Gerald of Aurillac, a series of moral essays, some sermons, an epic poem and 12 choral antiphons 878/9–942[151]
Óengus mac Óengusa Described in the Annals of the Four Masters as the "chief poet of Ireland" Died 930[152]
Ōnakatomi no Yoritomo Japanese poet, one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals Died 958[87]
Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu Japanese poet, one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber 922–991[120]
Ono no Komachi Japanese poet 834–900[153]
Ōshikōchi no Mitsune Japanese waka poet fl. 898–922[154]
Adikavi Pampa Kannada-language poet 902–945[155]
Abū Sahl al-Qūhī Astronomer and mathematician from Tabaristan c. 940 – c. 1000[156]
Qusta ibn Luqa Scholar of Greek Christian origin whose work included astronomy, mathematics, medicine and philosophy Probably c. 820 – probably c. 912–913[157]
Ratherius Author of works including a criticism of the social classes of his time and two defences of his right to the Diocese of Liège c. 887 – 974[158]
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi Physician, scientist, philosopher and author of alchemy and logic; born in Rey, Iran 865–925[159]
Regino of Prüm Chronicler and author of works on ecclesiastical discipline and liturgical singing, born in Altrip Died 915[160]
Richerus Chronicler from Reims Died after 998[161]
Ahmad ibn Rustah Persian author of a geographical compendium Died after 903[162]
Al-Saghani Mathematician and astronomer who flourished in Turkmenistan Died 990[163]
Ibn Sahl Geometer fl. late 10th century[164]
Sakanoue no Mochiki Japanese poet, one of the Five Men of the Pear Chamber fl. c. 950[120]
Sei Shōnagon Japanese diarist and poet c. 966 – c. 1025[165]
Abu Sulayman Sijistani Philosopher from Sijistan c. 932 – c. 1000[166]
Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani Islamic philosopher fl. 971[167]
Sijzi Geometer, astrologer and astronomer, born in Sijistan c. 945 – c. 1020[168]
Ibrahim ibn Sinan Geometer from Baghdad 908–946[169]
Farrukhi Sistani Court poet of Mahmud of Ghazni 10th–11th centuries[170]
Somadeva Suri South Indian Jain monk and author of the Upāsakādyayana, a central text of Digambara śrāvakācāra literature 10th century[171]
Sosei One of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals 859–923[87]
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Astronomer in Iran 903–986[172]
Sugawara no Michizane Japanese statesman, historian and poet 845–903[173]
Symeon the Studite "Spiritual father" of Symeon the New Theologian[174] and author of the "Ascetical Discourse", a narrative intended for monks[175] 917 or 924[176] – c. 986–7[177]
Ukhtanes of Sebastia Chronicler of the history of Armenia c. 935 – 1000[178]
Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi Mathematician, possibly from Damascus c. 920 – c. 980[179]
Vaṭeśvara Indian mathematician Born 802 or 880[180]
Widukind of Corvey Saxon historian Died c. 1004[181]
Xue Juzheng Author of the Old History of the Five Dynasties, an account of China's Five Dynasties 912–981[33]
Ibn Yunus Egyptian astronomer and astrologer 950–1009[182]
Ahmad ibn Yusuf Egyptian mathematician fl. c. 900–905, died 912/913[183]
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi Physician and author of Al-Tasrif, from Al-Andalus 936–1013[184]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne (31 August 2011). "'Abdul-Rahmān al-Şūfī and his Book of the Fixed Stars: A Journey of Re-discovery". In Orchiston, Wayne; Nakamura, Tsuko; Strom, Richard G. Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region: Proceedings of the ICOA-6 Conference. New York: Springer. p. 121. ISBN 1441981608. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  2. ^ Crowe, Felicity; Goddard, Jolyon; Holingum, Ben; MacEachern, Sally; Russell, Henry, eds. (1 September 2010). "Abu al-Qasim, Khalaf az-Zahrawi (936–1013)". Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference. p. 81. ISBN 0761479295. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Joseph ben Gorion (Josephus Gorionides; referred to also as Yosippon and Pseudo-Josephus)". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Zonta, Mauro (29 September 2005). "Microcosm/macrocosm". In Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven J.; Wallis, Faith. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge. p. 346. ISBN 0415969301. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel (6 November 2007). "Fragment of ancient parchment from Bible given to Jerusalem scholars". Haaretz (Tel Aviv). Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Waugh, Daniel C.. "Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio". University of Washington. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Sullivan, Denis F. (15 February 2009). "Byzantine military manuals: prescriptions, practice and pedagogy". In Stephenson, Paul. The Byzantine World. Abingdon, Oxon: Taylor & Francis. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0415440106. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Kelhoffer, James A. (2005). The Diet of John the Baptist: "Locusts and Wild Honey" in Synoptic and Patristic Interpretation. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 105. ISBN 3161484606. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Sharples, R. W. (1995). Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for His Life, Writings, Thought and Influence. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 9004101748. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  10. ^ McKinnell, John (2009). "The Fantasy Giantess: Brana in Hálfdanar saga Brönufǫstra". In Ney, Agneta; Jakobsson, Ármann; Lassen, Annette. Fornaldarsagaerne: Myter og virkelighed. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 202. ISBN 8763525798. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Abram, Christopher (5 May 2011). Myths of the Pagan North: The Gods of the Norsemen. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 47. ISBN 1847252478. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Thorvaldsen, Bernt Øyvind (1 December 2006). "The generic aspect of the Eddic style". In Andrén, Anders; Jennbert, Kristina; Raudvere, Catharina. Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes & Interactions. Lund: Nordic Academic Press. p. 277. ISBN 918911681X. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  13. ^ Steinsland, Gro (21 April 2011). "Origin Myths and Rulership. From the Viking Age Ruler to the Ruler of Medieval Historiography: Continuity, Transformations and Innovations". In Steinsland, Gro; Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar; Rekdal, Jan Erik; Beuermann, Ian. Ideology and Power in the Viking and Middle Ages: Scandinavia, Iceland, Ireland, Orkney and the Faeroes. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 9004205063. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  14. ^ Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar (21 April 2011). "Kings, Earls and Chieftains. Rulers in Norway, Orkney and Iceland c. 900–1300". In Steinsland, Gro; Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar; Rekdal, Jan Erik; Beuermann, Ian. Ideology and Power in the Viking and Middle Ages: Scandinavia, Iceland, Ireland, Orkney and the Faeroes. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 9004205063. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  15. ^ a b "Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  16. ^ Kilpatrick, Hilary (25 April 1996). "Modernity in a Classical Arabic Adab Work, the Kitab Al-aghāni". In Smart, J. R. Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language And Literature. London: Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 0700704116. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  17. ^ Khaleghi-Motlagh, Djalal (1999). "Ferdowsi, Abu’l-Qāsem i. Life". Encyclopædia Iranica IX. pp. 514–523. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "Full description". British Library. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "Tactics". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Luebering, J. E., ed. (15 August 2010). English Literature from the Old English Period Through the Renaissance. New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 46–7. ISBN 1615302301. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  21. ^ Klinck, Anne L. (10 July 2001). The Old English Elegies: A Critical Edition and Genre Study. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0773522417. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  22. ^ Saintsbury, George (1 January 2005). A Short History Of English Literature 1. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 24. ISBN 8126904453. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  23. ^ Ng, Zhiru (2007). The Making of a Savior Bodhisattva: Dizang in Medieval China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 173. ISBN 0824830458. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  24. ^ Lehner, Georg (10 May 2011). China in European Encyclopaedias, 1700–1850. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 289. ISBN 9004201505. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  25. ^ "Greek Anthology". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  26. ^ Goodwin, Janet R. (2007). Selling Songs and Smiles: The Sex Trade in Heian and Kamakura Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 13. ISBN 0824830970. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  27. ^ Frédéric 2002, p. 120.
  28. ^ Sreedharan, E. (1 January 2004). A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000. Andhra Pradesh: Orient Blackswan. p. 66. ISBN 8125026576. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  29. ^ Sullivan, Denis F. (2000). Siegecraft: Two Tenth-century Instructional Manuals. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. p. 16. ISBN 0884022706. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  30. ^ Nesbitt, John; McGeer, Eric (2000). Talbot, Alice-Mary, ed. "Nicolas Oikonomides". Dumbarton Oaks Papers (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks) 54: ix. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  31. ^ Stephenson, Paul (2003). "The Balkan frontier in the year 1000". In Magdalino, Paul. Byzantium in the Year 1000. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 9004120971. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  32. ^ "Bodhi Vamsa". Encyclopædia Britannica 4 (11th ed.). 1911. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  33. ^ a b Ng, On-cho; Wang, Q. Edward (6 September 2005). Mirroring the Past: The Writing and Use of History in Imperial China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN 0824829131. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  34. ^ Nicolle, David (26 July 1984). The Age of Charlemagne. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 085045042X. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  35. ^ Van der Essen, Léon (1907). "Ecclesiastical Annals". Catholic Encyclopedia 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
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References[edit]