From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from 1100–1109)
|Centuries:||11th century – 12th century – 13th century|
|Decades:||1070s 1080s 1090s – 1100s – 1110s 1120s 1130s|
|Years:||1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 1100s, ordered by year.
- The Ancient Pueblo Peoples culture rises (approximate date).
- Oraibi becomes and remains the first and oldest populated settlement in the USA and what is now Arizona.
- The city of Cusco, Peru is founded.
- The Liao Dynasty crushes the Zubu and takes their khan prisoner.
- Song Dynasty China's population reaches roughly 100 million.
- In the Song Dynasty capital of Kaifeng, the number of registered people within the walls is 1,050,000; the army stationed there boosts the overall populace to some 1.4 million people.
- Emperor Huizong of Song starts to rule in China.
South West Asia
- January – The Saljukid ruler Mahmud I is expelled from Bagdad by his brother, Barkiyaruq but Mahmud I manages to retake the city during his Spring offensive.
- May or June – Raymond de Saint-Gilles sails to Byzantium to obtain the support of the emperor Alexios in his attempt to seize Tripoli.
- August 1 – A Genoese fleets leaves Italy to support the Crusaders' effort to conquer the coastal cities, the ships reach Latakia on September 25.
- August – Bohemond I of Antioch is captured by the Danishmends at the Battle of Melitene, leaving Tancred as regent of the Principality of Antioch for two years.
- August 20 – With the support of the Venetian fleet, the Crusaders under Tancred of Hauteville capture the coastal city of Haifa.
- December 25 – Baldwin I is crowned first King of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem by Dagobert of Pisa, the new Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, following the death of the previous ruler, Baldwin's brother Godfrey of Bouillon, on July 18.
- After a success over the Armenians of Cilicia and the emirate of Aleppo, Baldwin of Bourcq becomes Count of Edessa with the support of the patriarch Dagobert of Pisa.
- Genoa, Venice and Pisa gain trading privileges from the Crusader states in return for their service during the conquest of the coastal cities.
- August 2 – King William II of England dies in a hunting accident in the New Forest; his brother Henry I claims the throne.
- August 5 – Henry I of England is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. The power of the new monarch is ill-assured and to mollify the barons he has to grant them the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of written constitution in Europe.
- August 30 – After the failure of the Council of Liubech in 1097, the Congress of Vytechev establishes peace and the feudal system in Kievan Rus, the princes come to an agreement to share the country between them and Sviatopolk II of Kiev becomes the first Grand Prince.
- September 16 – The Almoravid army defeats Castellan troops at the battle of Malagón (near modern-day Ciudad Real).
- September 23 – Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm returns from exile at the invitation of Henry I of England.
- October 18 – Peter I of Aragon conquers Barbastro (North) from the hands of the Almoravids.
- November 18 – Opening of the council of Poitier which is soon forcibly closed by the duke of Aquitaine, William IX, as the bishops were about to excommunicate once more the king of France, Philip I.
- December 25 – Philip I of France associates his son to the government of the realm.
- In Iceland, the Althing decides that the laws should be transferred to a written form.
- Intense urban activity in north and central Europe: Kalmar (Kungälv) and Varberg (Sweden) are chartered creation of the cities of Aach (southern Germany) and Nakléřov (in Bohemia, German: Nollendorf) and construction of the castle of Burgg Eppstein (central Germany).
- Philip I of France conquers the Vexin area and adds the city of Bourges and the province of Berry to his estate.
- Dagobert of Pisa becomes Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
- At the death of antipope Clement III, the supporters of the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome choose Theodoric as his successor.
- Frederick I of Schwarzburg becomes archbishop of Cologne and begins the construction of the castle of Volmarstein.
- Foundation of the Stift St. Georgen abbey near Sankt Georgen am Längsee (Austria).
- Foundation of the Diocese of Faroe (approx.)
- April – King Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Arsuf and Caesarea (in May).
- Crusade of 1101: Second wave of European crusaders attempt to cross Anatolia to reach the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They are heavily defeated by the Seljuq troops of Kilij Arslan I at Heraclea Cybistra and just a handful of knights manage to reach Palestine.
- June 20 – Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, lands at Portsmouth to try to take the throne of England from his brother, Henry. Later that year (July), he signs the Treaty of Alton, giving up his claim to the Anglo-Norman throne and establishing Henry I as King of England.
- June 22 – At birth, Roger II becomes count of Sicily and duke of Calabria. His mother becomes regent.
- August – The troops of the Almoravid ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, besiege Valencia, which is defended by Jimena Díaz, widow of El Cid. The city holds until May 1102.
- Fall – Countess Mathilda takes Ferrara.
- November – At the death of his father, Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, Welf II, Duke of Bavaria becomes duke of Bavaria.
- The County of Berg, Germany is established.
- April 19 – Canute II of Denmark is canonized.
- At the death of antipope Theodoric, the partisan of the Holy Roman Emperor choose Albert as the new antipope.
- Establishment of the Fontevraud Abbey.
- The Crusaders capture Caesarea Maritima.
- The Crusaders defeat a large Fatimid counter-attack of the Kingdom of Jerusalem near Ascalon and capture the city after 3 years of siege.
- Dagobert of Pisa is briefly deposed as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (and restored later in the year).
- Raymond IV of Toulouse begins to besiege Tripoli, and takes the nominal title of Count of Tripoli.
- Raymond IV of Toulouse is imprisoned by Tancred, regent of the Principality of Antioch.
- The Venetians establish a new trade emporium in Sidon.
- May 5 – End of the short-lived principality created by El Cid: Valencia is captured by the Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin. It is later recaptured, evacuated and burned by Alfonso VI of Castile.
- June 4 – Władysław I Herman, Duke of Poland, dies at Płock leaving the succession to be disputed between his sons Bolesław III Wrymouth and Zbigniew.
- Following the Croatian military defeat of 1096, by the contested Pacta conventa the Croatian nobles recognize Coloman, King of Hungary, as their overlord, initiating the personal union between the two kingdoms.
- Henry I of England takes possession of Arundel Castle in the south of England having besieged Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, there.
- The Hohenbaden castle is built in Baden-Baden, Germany.
- At the Council of London, the Roman Catholic Church bans sodomy and the sale of Christian slaves to non-Christian countries and reforms the clergy.
- Henry I of England orders the tomb of Edward the Confessor opened; the body is supposedly found undecayed.
- April 27 – Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile after a dispute with Henry I of England.
- August 24 – Magnus III of Norway is killed in battle with the Ulaid in Ulster. Sigurd Jorsalfare, Øystein Magnusson and Olaf Magnusson succeed him as joint kings of Norway.
- Amadeus III becomes Count of Savoy.
- Bohemund I of Antioch is released from Turkish imprisonment.
- The Scandinavian city of Lund becomes a see of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Chinese architect and government minister Li Jie (1065–1110) publishes his Yingzao Fashi technical treatise on Chinese architecture during the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song.
- The great flood of Goa leaves thousands cut off from the war-torn city of Ohpen Bheta.
- May 7 – Battle of Harran: Baldwin II, count of Edessa, is taken prisoner by the Seljuk Turks; Tancred becomes regent.
- September 3 – St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral.
- The Venice Arsenal is founded in Venice.
- Alfonso I of Aragon becomes King of Aragon and Navarre.
- Historian Guibert of Nogent becomes abbot of Notre Dame de Nogent.
- Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Acre.
- Georgians under king David IV (the builder) defeat 100 000 Seljuks with only 1,500 warriors.
- Sultan Kilij Arslan I of Sultanate of Rüm starts a war with the Danishmends.
- Tuğtekin, atabeg of Damascus founds a short lived principality in Syria. First example of a series of Seljukid atabeg dynasties.
- The volcano Hekla erupts in Iceland, destroying settlements.
- December 31 – Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is deposed by his son, Henry V.
- The Almoravid emir, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, sends a maritime expedition to Palestine from Sevilla to ward off the Crusaders and maybe to reconquer Jerusalem. The fleet of more or less seventy ships rush into a storm in the Mediterranean and is never seen again.
- Roger II of Sicily becomes the Count of Sicily.
- Upon the death of Inge the Elder, he is succeeded by his nephew Philip as king of Sweden.
- First mention of the consuls of Pavia indicating that the city has become an independent commune.
- February 2 – Great Comet of 1106 first sighted.
- September 28 – Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Devizes Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner.
- Balaguer, Spain, is captured from the Moors by the count of Urgell.
- Boleslaus III of Poland begins a war against his brother Zbigniew for control of Poland.
- Emperor Toba ascends to the throne of Japan.
- Chinese money is printed in 3 colours to stymie counterfeiting.
- The highly cultivated emperor of China, Emperor Huizong of Song, writes his Treatise on Tea.
- October – The army of Bohemond of Tarente lands in Dyrrachium to try to conquer the Byzantine Empire.
- William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter.
- Alexander I inherits the Scottish crown with the death of Edgar of Scotland.
- The Norwegian king Sigurd sails off from England to Palestine to support the Crusaders. He repels a Muslim fleet near the Tagus river, he then attacks Sintra; Lisbon and Alcácer do Sal and finally defeats a second Muslim fleet further south.
- Saracen pirates raid the benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat on the Lérins Islands .
- The city of Florence starts expanding its control over the surrounding countryside and takes the city of Monte Orlandi.
- The Taira and Minamoto clans join forces to rule Japan after defeating the warrior monks of the Enryaku-ji temple near Kyoto.
- Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus and Bohemund I of Antioch negotiate the Treaty of Devol.
- May 29 – Battle of Uclés: The Almoravids decisively defeat forces of the kingdoms of Castile and León and roll back the advances of Reconquista; several towns recently captured by Christians are lost to the conquering Berbers such as Tarragona.
- July 29 – Louis VI of France starts to rule on the death of his father; on August 3 he is crowned in Orléans Cathedral.
- The Principality of Nitra ceases to exist, after Coloman, King of Hungary, deposes its last ruler, Álmos, Duke of Croatia.
- Magnus Erlendsson becomes the first Earl of Orkney.
- Pistoia Cathedral in Italy suffers a severe fire.
- First mention of the consuls of Bergamo indicating that the city has become an independent republic.
- Chichester Cathedral is consecrated in England.
- The Almoravid Ali ibn Yusuf organizes an auto-da-fé of the works of Al-Ghazali in front of the great mosque of Cordoba.
- Fulk V becomes Count of Anjou.
- August 10 – Battle of Nakło: The Poles, led by Bolesław III Wrymouth, defeat the Pomeranians.
- August 24 – Battle of Głogów: The Poles defeat the Holy Roman Empire.
- August 24 – Battle of Hundsfeld: The Poles again defeat the Holy Roman Empire.
- Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile.
- The Almoravid army led by Ali ibn Yusuf fails to reconquer Toledo (lost in 1085).
- Maalouf, Amid (1983). La Croisade vue par les Arabes. Paris: Lattès. p. 74. ISBN 978-2-7096-0547-2.
- Hill, John Hugh; Hill, Laurita Lyttleton (1959). Raymond IV de Saint-Gilles, 1041 (ou 1042)-1105. Privat.
- Hagenmeyer, Hendrich (1973). Chronologie de la première croisade, 1094-1100. Olms. ISBN 978-3-487-04756-0.
- "Baldwin I of Edessa". Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- "Communal Courts". Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- Buresi, Pascal (2004). La frontière entre chrétienté et islam dans la péninsule Ibérique. Publibook. ISBN 978-2-7483-0644-6.
- Sénac, Philippe (2000). La frontière et les hommes, VIIIe-XIIe siècle. Maisonneuve et Larose. ISBN 978-2-7068-1421-1.
- Catlos, Brian A. (2004). The victors and the vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-521-82234-3.
- O'Reilly, Patrice-John (1857). Histoire complète de Bordeaux, Volume 1,Parties 1 à 2. Delmas.
- Hoefer, Jean (1862). Nouvelle biographie générale. Firmin Didot frères.
- "The history of checkers". Retrieved 5 Aug 2010.
- Lagardère, Vincent (1989). Les Almoravides jusqu'au règne de Yūsuf b. Tāšfīn (1039-1106). Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-7384-0467-1.
- Klaniczay, Gábor; Eva Pálmai (2002). Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42018-1.
- Gaier, Claude (2004). Armes et combats dans l'univers médiéval. Paris: De Boeck Supérieur. ISBN 2-8041-4543-3.
- Touba, Keltoum (2006). Le travail dans les cultures monothéistes: judaïsme, christianisme, islam de l'Antiquité au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-296-00923-9.
- Dozy, R. P. A. (1860). Recherches sur l'histoire et la littérature de l'Espagne pendant le moyen âge. E. J. Brill. p. 27.
- Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Unité mixte de recherche 5648--Histoire et archéologie des mondes chrétiens et musulmans médiévaux. Pays d'Islam et monde latin, Xe-XIIIe siècle: textes et documents. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon.
- McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders and the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia, Volume 1. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93930-5.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010) L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; pp.86.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010) L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; pp.84.