- For the unrelated roll-film format produced from 1898 to 1929, see 110 film (roll format).
110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is essentially a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier 126 film format. Each frame is 13 mm × 17 mm (0.51 in × 0.67 in), with one registration hole.
The film is fully housed in a plastic cartridge, which also registers the image when the film is advanced. There is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number and film type are visible through a window at the rear of the cartridge. The film does not need to be rewound and is very simple to load and unload. It is pre-exposed with frame lines and numbers, a feature intended to make it easier and more efficient for photofinishers to print.
The 110 cartridge was introduced by Kodak in 1972 with Kodak Pocket Instamatic cameras. The new pocket-sized cameras became immediately popular, and soon displaced competing subminiature cameras, such as the Minolta 16 series, from the market. The 110 film width is 16 mm. A four frame strip measures 111 mm.
Estes Industries has long marketed several model rockets, the most notable being the Astrocam, with a simple 110 camera in the nose; the shutter is triggered when the nose cone separates from the rocket body.
Design and technical issues
Although the format is most closely associated with cheaply produced, low-cost cameras, Canon, Minolta, Minox, Pentax, Rollei, Voigtländer, and others, as well as Kodak, offered sophisticated, expensive 110 cameras, with excellent multi-element focusing lenses and precise, electronically controlled exposure systems. Such cameras are capable of making high-quality images on 110 film. Some of these cameras are quite small and still hold appeal to subminiature-photography enthusiasts.
citation needed] The small negative size of 110 film makes it difficult to enlarge successfully. For these reasons, the 110 format is associated with prints that are often rather grainy and unsharp. This has led to the misconception that the cartridge itself is incapable of holding film flat enough for making high-quality negatives.[
The 110 cartridge, as specified by Kodak, has a plastic tab on one end. Camera designers had the option of using this tab to sense film speed, enabling sophisticated cameras to switch between high- and low-speed film. A short tab indicated high-speed film, and a long tab indicated low-speed film. Kodak left it to the film manufacturer to decide which film speeds were high or low. Only a few expensive cameras took advantage of this feature.
The last 110 film that Kodak produced was ISO 400 speed packed in a cartridge that senses as "low" speed. As shown in the photograph to the right, these cartridges can be modified by hand so that they signal the proper speed to the camera.
In May 2012, Lomography released their own 110 film - the Orca Black and White 100 ISO pocket film. Named after the killer whale because of its monochromatic coloring, the Orca B&W film is the first 110 film in production since 2009. More recently, Lomography released their first color negative 110 film - the 200 ISO Lomography Color Tiger 110.
In 2010, Adox announced that their new Adox Pan 400 black and white film to be released in mid-2011 will be eventually sold in 110 format. However with the problems that the first test coating of Adox Pan 400 experienced, the release date has been pushed back and there is no set date for the release of it in 110.
Along with standard sized slides that fit into standard projectors, 110 slide film could also be processed into smaller format slides. The latter required special Pocket Carousel projectors. The sub-miniature slides were mounted in small mounts. There were also mount adapters available that allowed the small mounts to be projected in a common projector. These adapters were not entirely satisfactory however, as to project the smaller slide at a size comparable to that from 35mm the projector had to be moved further from the screen, resulting in a dimmer image. The dedicated 110 projector overcame this by using a brighter lamp.
- Category: Film formats
- Film format
- List of color film systems
- List of film formats
- Minolta 110 Zoom SLR - One SLR to use the format.
- Pentax Auto 110 - Another SLR to use the format.
- International standard: ISO 13450
- "Sayonara 110 – Fujifilm discontinues 110 colour negative film". Archived from the original on 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Frugal Photographer
- Marcus, Ted R., APS, 110, "Disc," and Formats du Jour, Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2006, retrieved 2006-11-09.
- Marcus, Ted R., Europe Through the Front Door, Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2004, retrieved 2006-11-09.