11th Street Bridges

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11th Street Bridges
11th Street Bridges - construction 07 - 2011-12-29.jpg
11th Street Bridges under construction in 2011
Official name Officer Kevin J. Welsh Memorial Bridge (southbound span)
11th Street Bridge (northbound span)
Carries 8 lanes of I‑695, 2 lanes of local traffic
Crosses Anacostia River
Locale Washington, D.C., U.S.
Maintained by District of Columbia Department of Transportation
Design Beam bridge
Total length 931 feet (283.96 m)
Width 63 feet (19.22 m)
Longest span 234 feet (71.37 m)
Opened 1965; 49 years ago (1965) (original north span); 1970; 44 years ago (1970) (original south span); December 2011; 2 years ago (2011-12) (new north span); January 2012; 2 years ago (2012-01) (new south span); January 2013; 1 year ago (2013-01) (local bridge)
Toll None
Daily traffic 86,000 per day (2004)
Closed 1965 and 1970 spans closed 2012. Demolished 2012
Coordinates 38°52′19″N 76°59′21″W / 38.872°N 76.9893°W / 38.872; -76.9893Coordinates: 38°52′19″N 76°59′21″W / 38.872°N 76.9893°W / 38.872; -76.9893

The 11th Street Bridges are a complex of three bridges across the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C., United States. The bridges convey Interstate 695 across the Anacostia to its southern terminus at Interstate 295 and DC 295.[1] The bridges also connect the neighborhood of Anacostia with the rest of the city of Washington.[1]

The first bridge at the site, constructed about 1800, played a role in the War of 1812. It burned in 1846, but was repaired. A second bridge was constructed in 1873, and replaced in 1907. A modern, four-lane bridge replaced the older bridge in 1965, and a second four-lane bridge added in 1970. In 2009, construction began on three spans (two carrying freeway traffic, one carrying local-only traffic) to replace the 1965 and 1970 bridges. The northbound bridge opened to traffic in December 2011 while the southbound bridge open to traffic in January 2012. The new bridges include new ramps and new interchanges with I-295 (the Anacostia Freeway). The local bridge opened to traffic in May 2012. Portions of all three bridges and their approaches remain under construction as of April 2013. Phase 1 of the project was completed ahead of schedule and within budget in July 2013.[2] The local bridge was fully complete by September 2013.[3] Phase 2 of the project, including the conversion of the Barney Circle Freeway into a boulevard,[4] will be completed in 2015.

Original bridges[edit]

The first bridge across the Anacostia River in this area was the Eastern Branch Bridge,[5] a privately owned toll and drawbridge built between 1795 and 1800 about 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream from 11th Street SE (at the site of the current John Philip Sousa Bridge).[6][7] The Eastern Branch Bridge was blown up and partially burned by retreating American soldiers in August 1814 during the War of 1812.[8] It was rebuilt, but burned completely in August 1846.[6] In 1820, the privately owned "Upper Navy Yard Bridge" was built over the Anacostia River at 11th Street SE.[6][7] Also a toll bridge, this second bridge became a "free" bridge in 1848 after it was purchased by the federal government.[6] From the city's founding until 1854, the area known today as Anacostia was primarily sparsely populated farmland.[7] But Anacostia was platted in 1854, and development slowly began to turn the agricultural land into businesses and residences.[7] The destruction of the Eastern Branch Bridge in 1846, however, significantly slowed growth in the area for five decades.[9]

A second bridge was built in the same location in 1872-1873.[10] This bridge was replaced in 1905-1907 by a stronger, wider span (the "Anacostia Bridge") which accommodated streetcars.[11] It was this span which the Bonus Army fled across on July 28, 1932, when attacked by the United States Army.[12]

The 1907 span was replaced by a modern structure four-lane bridge carrying one-way northbound traffic in 1965 as part of the development of the "Inner Loop" (see below).[13] A second four-lane bridge was added in 1970, with one-way traffic over the span of each bridge.[13][14]

The southbound structure was officially named the Officer Kevin J. Welsh Memorial Bridge, while the northbound structure was officially named the 11th Street Bridge.[1][15] Both were beam bridges: "[The spans] are two-girder systems with steel composite construction and a central drop-in span on pin supports. The main girders are riveted and welded, and both have reinforced wall type piers with granite facing, supported by steel H piles."[16] Each span was about 63 feet (19.2 metres) wide.[13] Each bridge had roughly five sections—four sections of about 170 feet (51.85 m) in length, with a center section about 234 feet (71.4 m) in length.[13] Both spans were considered "fracture critical," which means that if one girder in the span fails the entire bridge is likely to collapse.[13]

The Inner Loop[edit]

In 1956, federal and regional transportation planners proposed an Inner Loop Expressway composed of three circumferential beltways for the District of Columbia.[17] The innermost beltway would have formed a flattened oval about a mile in radius centered on the White House.[17] The middle beltway would have formed an arc along the northern portion of the city, running from the proposed Barney Circle Freeway (whose terminus would have been near Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium) through Anacostia Park, cut northwest through the Trinidad neighborhood along Mt. Olivet Road NE, followed the Amtrak rail line north to Missouri Avenue NW, along Missouri Avenue NW to Military Road NW, along Military Road NW across Rock Creek Park to Nebraska Avenue NW, down Nebraska Avenue NW to New Mexico Avenue NW, and down New Mexico Avenue NW and across Glover-Archbold Park until it terminated near 37th Street NW at the north end of Georgetown.[17]

Two decades of protest led to the cancellation of all but the I-395 and I-695 portions of the plan.[17] The unbuilt portions of the project were finally cancelled in 1977.[17] Several ramps allowing traffic on the 11th Street Bridges to access I-295/Anacostia Freeway and I-695 eastbound remained unbuilt because of these cancellations, creating severe traffic problems on both ends of the bridges.[1][18]

Barney Circle Freeway[edit]

The north end of the original 11th Street Bridges in 1992.

In 1975, federal, regional, and city transportation planners proposed an extension to I-695/Southeast Freeway to be called the "Barney Circle Freeway" to help alleviate the problems created by the failure to complete the Inner Loop.[19] In part, the project was also designed to encourage commuters currently traversing Capitol Hill to use the Southeast Freeway as their primary route out of the city.[18] The freeway would extend I-695 past its existing terminus at the Barney traffic circle, and travel along the western bank of the Anacostia River (through Anacostia Park) to East Capitol Street and Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium.[18][19][20] A new bridge over the Anacostia River at Burnham Barrier would provide vehicles easy access to the Anacostia Freeway.[18][19][20] The project would also upgrade I-295 by adding bus and carpool lanes.[20] The combined bridge and freeway project was ready for construction to begin in 1981,[20] and its cost was estimated to be $93.5 million.[18] But after protests from residents of Capitol Hill (who feared the Barney Circle Freeway would cause more traffic to flow into the area) as well as environmentalists, the District of Columbia agreed to reduce the number of lanes on the Barney Circle Freeway to two from four.[21]

The protests and legal and regulatory challenges to the proposed freeway did not end, however, and by 1992 the freeway's cost had ballooned to $160 million and it remained unbuilt.[22] By 1993, costs for the project had increased to $200 million, but D.C. Mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly gave her approval for construction to begin.[23] But construction was delayed yet again when the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, Anacostia Watershed Society, Committee of 100 on the Federal City, Citizens Committee to Stop It Again, D.C. Federation of Civic Associations, Friends of the Earth, Kingman Park Civic Association, the Barney Circle Neighborhood Watch, Urban Protectors, and American Rivers threatened to sue unless the city scaled back the freeway even further, agreed to add exit ramps at the junction of Pennsylvania Avenue SE and I-695, and altered traffic patterns (e.g., creating more one-way streets) on Capitol Hill.[24] The groups could not reach an agreement with the city, and filed suit to stop construction in May 1994.[14][25] The groups claimed that federal and city officials had covered up how much hazardous waste lay under the construction sites; claimed the roads and bridge would add pollution, traffic, and noise to existing neighborhoods; pollute the Anacostia River; destroy much-needed city parkland; and benefit out-of-state commuters and affluent Capitol Hill residents while harming the poor, African American neighborhoods in Anacostia.[14][25] City studies in 1991 and 1992 discovered large amounts of lead waste (from a former smelter) on the west bank of the Anacostia River, but city officials said the amount of pollution was not enough to warrant any change in plans (a conclusion the groups disagreed with).[14][25] A second lawsuit was filed days later by the D.C. Federation of Civic Associations, the National Audubon Society, and the Citizens Committee to Stop It Again alleging that planning officials did not consider all reasonable alternatives to the project.[26] Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) officials agreed to delay the start of construction by four months to allow the suits to be heard by the courts.[27] In August 1994, FHWA administrators agreed to conduct an additional environmental impact assessment regarding the project.[28] The study, released in October 1994, showed that 15,000 (25.6 percent) more tons of polluted soil would need to be disposed of, at a cost of $5 million.[29] Nonetheless, the federal government said that the environmental assessment's findings did not alter its earlier conclusion that construction of the roadway and bridge project was economically feasible, technologically appropriate, and environmentally sound.[19][30] On the basis of these findings, federal highway officials refused to seek a large-scale, more complete environmental impact assessment for the project.[30]

The D.C. City Council had the final say on whether to proceed with the project or not. The Council began debating the project on November 6, 1994.[31] In December 1994, the City Council bowed to neighborhood opposition and voted overwhelmingly to reject the project.[32]

2009 rebuilding[edit]

Demolition and removal of a portion of the connecting span between the north span of the 11th Street Bridge and Interstate 695 (Southeast Freeway) on October 10, 2009.

The District of Columbia assessed the bridges in 2002. The Welsh Memorial Bridge was rated "satisfactory" (superstructure rating of 6; substructure rating of 6) while the 11th Street Bridge was rated "fair to poor" (superstructure rating of 5; substructure rating of 4).[1][33] Both superstructures were near maximum life expectancy.[1] In 2004, the two bridges carried 86,000 vehicles per day, the second-largest volume of the four "middle Anacostia River" bridge crossings.[1] Without improvements to traffic patterns across the Anacostia River, the District of Columbia Department of Transportation (DDOT) estimated in 2005 that traffic over the 11th Street Bridges would significantly expand to 105,100 vehicles per day by 2030, an increase of 22.2 percent over 2004 and more than 40.3 percent higher than the next-busiest bridge (Sousa Bridge).[1] DDOT undertook a major study of the bridges in 2004 which concluded that both bridges should be replaced.[34]

DDOT and the FHWA issued notices to proceed with further assessments in September 2005, a draft environmental impact assessment was published in July 2006, a final environmental assessment was published in September 2007, and a decision to proceed promulgated in July 2008.[34][35] Public hearings were held in September 2005, December 2005, and July 2006.[34] Because of design changes, the environmental impact study was re-evaluated in July 2009 and found to still be sufficient.[34] The goals of the project were:

  • to reduce traffic congestion on the both the 11th Street Bridges and on local streets;
  • to increase the safety of all types of traffic on local streets;
  • to replace the current bridges;
  • to provide an improved emergency evacuation route for the nation's capital; and
  • to provide routes for security personnel in and out of the nation's capital.[34]

The project also included a pedestrian walkway to provide foot traffic access across the bridges as well.[36]

The entire replacement project was expected to cost $365 million.[37] Demolition of a portion of the bridges began in July 2009 (a portion of M Street SE and I-295 access ramp at 12th Street SE were closed for two weekends to permit demolition of bridge ramps),[38] and construction was scheduled to end in 2013.[37]

On-ramps from Anacostia to the northbound span of the 11th Street Bridges were closed on December 20, 2009, for five and a half hours after heavy snow blocked the approaches during the North American blizzard of 2009, with the snow removal disrupting automobile traffic and forcing the temporary closure of several Metrobus routes which use the bridge.[39]

Lane closures on the bridges, as well lane closures and other traffic restrictions on nearby local roads and on- and off-ramps, began October 26, 2010, as the construction moved from the middle of the Anacostia River toward the shore.[40] City engineers estimated that the project was 25 percent complete by late October 2010.[41] The project was on track for completion in 2013.[42] On November 5, 2010, construction crews began driving piles east of the bridge on its northern side to begin construction of the ramp connecting the new bridge to east-bound Southeast Freeway.[42]

DDOT officials said in January 2011 that they expected a new connection with southbound I-295 to open during the spring, for construction on the two freeway spans to be complete by fall, and for the local span to open in 2013.[43] Lane closures on the 11th Street Bridges, small segments of Southeast-Southwest Freeway, I-295, and local streets began on March 23, 2011, and continued through June.[44]

The bridges' construction sparked some controversy. On March 22, a citizens group named "D.C. Jobs or Else" organized a protest of about 50 individuals on the 11th Street Bridges.[45] Joined by D.C. Council member Marion Barry, the protesters said too few individuals from the Anacostia area (which suffers from a 30 percent unemployment rate) had been considered for employment or hired by Skanska/Facchina, the joint-venture construction company building the bridges.[45] Skanska/Facchina vice president Brook Brookshire denied the accusations, noting that 51 percent of the new hires were D.C. residents, the company had engaged in extensive outreach to the unemployed, and that the company had worked with local jobs organizations, the D.C. Department of Employment Services, and the D.C. Department of Transportation to find workers for the project.[46] Brookshire also said the company had provided training to unskilled workers to enable them to work on the project and find careers in the construction industry.[46]

Signage on the new inbound span of the 11th Street Bridges shows the connection with I-695, which will be marked for the first time in its history.

In May 2011, DDOT closed the off-ramp from the bridges to Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE. The agency said the closure would create a larger work area and speed up construction of the new bridges and approaches.[47] Traffic was rerouted along the existing Good Hope Road on-ramp through the end of 2011,[47] although this meant the ramp now carried two-way traffic in a single lane each way. Significant afternoon rush-hour delays occurred in the area due to the rerouting.[47]

In August 2011, the D.C. City Council designated the 11th Street Bridges, a portion of Southeast/Southwest Freeway, Maine Avenue SW, and Independence Avenue SW "Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue" in honor of the slain civil rights leader. The dedication came in time for the planned dedication of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial.[48] The renaming was honorary, and did not formally change the names of these bridges, highways, and streets.[48]

The non-local spans were finished months ahead of schedule, and D.C. Mayor Vincent C. Gray held a ribbon-cutting ceremony on December 16, 2011, to open the two bridges connecting I-295 with the Anacostia Freeway. The two spans were projected to carry 180,000 automobiles per day by 2032.[49] The inbound I-295 span opened on Monday, December 19, 2011.[50] The span carried both I-295 traffic as well as traffic coming up from neighborhood streets in Anacostia until the separate Anacostia-only span opened in 2013. Officials in December 2011 predicted the local-only span, which was intended to carry not only automobiles but also include bicycle and pedestrian lanes, would open in the summer of 2012.[49]

Before the opening of the spans, DDOT received permission from the U.S. Department of Transportation to extend the designation of I-695 to the interchange with I-295.[51]

The opening of the new spans eliminated a dangerous portion of I-295 where motorists moving right to access the 11th Street Bridges mixed with motorists moving left as they entered the freeway from Firth Sterling Avenue SE. However, to allow local traffic access to the rest of the city, a set of temporary on- and off-ramps were made to give Anacostia residents access to the bridges.[52] In March 2012, DDOT also closed the ramp leading from I-695 to the 11th Street Bridges so that new approaches and connections to the new spans could be constructed.[53] Ten Metrobus routes were rerouted due to the span closure, adding significant travel times for Anacostia commuters.[54] Motorists attempting to reach Anacostia were forced to use one of three time-consuming alternative routes: exit I-395 at the Sixth Street SE ramp, travel through local streets, and use an on-ramp next to the Washington Navy Yard to access the undemolished old outbound bridge; continue onto I-295 and exit at Howard Road SE; exit onto South Capitol Street and take the Frederick Douglass Bridge; or continue east to the John Philip Sousa Bridge.[51]

In January 2012, DDOT officials said that even when the third span opened in the summer of 2012, it would not be complete. DDOT said that one of the outbound traffic lanes would not be complete, nor would the pedestrian/bike lane. DDOT also admitted that Anacostia residents traveling into the city would not have direct access to M Street as originally planned. Instead, motorists would confront a dead-end and be forced to take a detour east onto O Street SE, travel north on 12th Street NE, and then make a left to reach M Street SE. DDOT said the final outbound lane to Anacostia as well as the bicycle/pedestrian lane would not be completed until the fall of 2012.[51]

DDOT announced in April 2012 that it was on schedule to open the new ramp from the bridge to northbound Anacostia Freeway in June, and the new inbound-ramp on the north side of the bridge (connecting with I-395) in September.[55]

Photograph of a bridge gently curving over a wide river, with a marina to the right and flyovers to the left.
Panorama of the completed 11th Street Bridges. To the left are the flyovers and underpasses which make up the Suitland Parkway/D.C. Route 250 (Anacostia Freeway) interchange.

Southeast Boulevard[edit]

Since the cancellation of the Inner Loop Expressway, motorists wanting to access the Baltimore–Washington Parkway or U.S. Route 50 in Maryland (the John Hanson Highway) would often travel Interstate 695 to Barney Circle, wait at the traffic light there, use Pennsylvania Avenue to cross the nearby Sousa Bridge, wait at a traffic light on the southwestern terminus of the bridge, and make a left turn against oncoming traffic to access a narrow and dangerous ramp that led to northbound D.C. Route 295 (the Anacostia Freeway). The combination of traffic lights, left turn, and mixing of both through-traffic and local traffic created extensive traffic congestion on the Sousa Bridge during evening rush hour.[56][57][58][59][60]

In 2009, when the DDOT began the replacement of the 11th Street Bridges, it closed the westbound segment of Interstate 695 from the 11th Street Bridges to Barney Circle in late November 2012,[61] and the eastbound lanes in early 2013.[60] This portion of was Interstate 695 was subsequently decommissioned, turning roughly five blocks of six-lane highway into city streets from the National Highway System.[62] The unfinished "mixing bowl" exchange on the southern terminus of the 11th Street Bridges was also altered. Local traffic was separated from through-traffic by the construction of a bridge dedicated for local traffic only, and ramps connecting the bridge to D.C. Route 295 were created. Construction of the new ramps began in May 2012,[58] with the ramp from southbound D.C. Route 295 onto the 11th Street Bridge completed in July 2012.[59] The ramp from the bridges to northbound D.C. Route 295 opened on December 19, 2012.[63]

The decommissioned portion of Interstate 695 began to be transformed into a boulevard named "Southeast Boulevard".[59] The reconstruction project, estimated to take 18 to 24 months, raised the roadway 20 feet (6.1 m) to bring it level with the grad of the surrounding streets.[60] The six-lane former highway began to be turned into a four-lane grand boulevard with a landscaped median and pedestrian nature trail. Southeast Boulevard was designed to link Barney Circle to 11th Street SE.[59]

In 2013, DDOT published plans to reconfigure Barney Circle. Priorities for the project included improving and restoring access to neighborhood streets, and adding pedestrian and bicycle connectivity to local streets and the Anacostia River waterfront. DDOT also began exploring whether to connect Southeast Boulevard to 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th Streets SE.[64] By 2014, DDOT's plan involved possible reconstructing of Barney Circle into an intermodal transportation hub as well. DDOT planners said that construction on this project might begin as early as 2016.[65]

Streetcar lane[edit]

The local span of the new 11th Street Bridges was designed to accommodate a lane for the trolley cars of the city's emerging DC Streetcar tram system. The Anacostia Line of the streetcar system was originally intended to travel north from the Anacostia Metro station to a streetcar station at the southern foot of the local span before connecting with the Navy Yard – Ballpark and Waterfront Metro stations.[66] Design changes were made in the 11th Street Bridges to permit the streetcar tracks.[67] In 2009, however, DDOT said the trolley cars would not travel down M Street SE/SW but rather proceed up 8th Street SE/NE to link with DC Streetcar's H Street Line.[67][68] To help fund construction of the Anacostia Line, DDOT proposed transferring $10 million from demolition of the 11th Street Bridges, but put that plan on hold due to delays in the streetcar project.[69]

For reasons which remain unclear, DDOT shuttered construction of the Anacostia line in August 2010.[70] Funding for the Anacostia Line over the 11th Street Bridges subsequently fell through as well. DDOT had applied for an $18 million Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant from the United States Department of Transportation to build the trolley bed and lay tracks along the local span, but the federal agency denied the application in October 2010.[71] Three days later, DDOT released a new DC Streetcar map showing the Anacostia Line terminating at the Anacostia Metro station.[72]

However, in October 2009, construction began on the new United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) headquarters on what used to be the west campus of St. Elizabeths Hospital.[73] As the first DHS headquarters building neared completion,[74] the need for a streetcar line to move DHS workers from the Anacostia and Congressional Heights Metro lines into the heart of Anacostia became urgent. Federal and city officials also wanted to find a way to link the 8th Street Marine Corps Barracks and United States Navy facilities at the Washington Navy Yard to the DHS campus. DDOT and the Federal Transit Administration began holding a series of public meetings to determine how to link the 11th Street Bridges with DHS.

By June 2011, three public meetings had been held, in which 10 alternate routes for the streetcar line had been identified.[75] In January 2012 the fourth public meeting narrowed the routes down to four alternatives for linking the Anacostia Metro station to the bridges.[76]

Proposed 11th Street Bridges recreation project[edit]

DDOT originally planned to tear down the spans of the existing 11th Street Bridges, but leave the piers standing. The agency planned to connect the bicycle/pedestrian lane on the new local-only span with two of the piers left over from the demolition of the downstream span. Pedestrian observation platforms would be built on the piers. At both ends of the local-only span, the city also proposed building fishing piers, which would extend into the Anacostia River. The overlooks and fishing piers were expected to be completed in the fall of 2012 or the spring of 2013.[77]

However, in March 2012 the Office of Planning within the D.C. Mayor's office proposed retaining the downstream span and turning it into a recreational destination. The inspiration for the concept came from New York City's High Line,[78] a linear park and aerial greenway built on a section of the former elevated New York Central Railroad spur.[79] The Office of Planning's initial concept proposed building a new 925-foot (282 m) superstructure on the piers, complete with utilities (electricity, natural gas, sewage, fresh water). A self-sustaining public-private partnership would develop parks, restaurants, and outdoor entertainment features on the span.[77] City planners argued the concept would connect parks and trails along both sides of the Anacostia River, provide a "destination attraction" in the city's improverished Southeast which could enhance retail sales as well as economic development in the area, and provide badly needed outdoor recreational facilities to residents of the Anacostia neighborhood.[80][81] The cost of building a new span was estimated at between $25 and $35 million.[82]

The city made its planning proposal about 45 to 60 days before demolition was to have begun on the existing span.[77] It said it would hold a national design competition in the summer of 2012.[80]

Reaction to the plan was mixed. Attendees at the city's meeting were reported to be highly enthusiastic.[82] But Beth Purcell, president of the Capitol Hill Restoration Society, called the plan "bizarre" and argued that the city should not delay construction of the overlooks and fishing piers in favor of an unstudied design proposal with no funding.[77] David Alpert, of the prominent local blog Greater Greater Washington, was more muted in his criticism. Writing for the Washington Post, he pointed out that the "recreation bridge" connected two neighborhoods of only moderate population density, and was not easily accessed from either side of the river. He argued that the space would have to have enough activity and importance to make it a "destination" space day and night. He cautioned that the space could easily turn into a dead zone or encourage crime, and that the space would have to be connected to the 11th Street Bridges local-only span's bicycle/pedestrian lanes. He also suggested that one or more DC Streetcar stops be created along the bridge.[82]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "part2" (PDF). District of Columbia Department of Transportation. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. 
  2. ^ "11th Street Bridge Project - Anacostia Waterfront, DC DDOT". Anacostiawaterfront.org. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  3. ^ "11th Street Bridges Reconstruction - JDLand/Near Southeast DC Revitalization". Jdland.com. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  4. ^ "Photo Collages". Jdland.com. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  5. ^ The Anacostia River was originally called the "Eastern Branch." See: Abbott, Carl. Political Terrain: Washington, D.C., from Tidewater Town to Global Metropolis. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8078-4805-0
  6. ^ a b c d Croggon, James. "Old 'Burnt Bridge'." Evening Star. July 7, 1907.
  7. ^ a b c d Burr, Charles R. "A Brief History of Anacostia, Its Name, Origin and Progress." Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington. 1920.
  8. ^ Pitch, Anthony S. The Burning of Washington: The British Invasion of 1814. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55750-425-3
  9. ^ Miller, Frederic and Gillette, Howard. Washington Seen: A Photographic History, 1875-1965. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8018-4979-9
  10. ^ Fitzpatrick, Sandra and Goodwin, Maria R. A Guide to Black Washington: Places and Events of Historical and Cultural Significance in the Nation's Capital. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1990. ISBN 0-87052-832-7
  11. ^ "The Bill (H.R. 18198) Making Appropriations to Provide For the Expenses of the Government of the District of Columbia for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1907, and for Other Purposes." Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations. U.S. Senate. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1906.
  12. ^ Manchester, William. "Rock Bottom in America." New York Magazine. August 5, 1974; Weintraub, Stanley. 15 Stars: Eisenhower, MacArthur, Marshall: Three Generals Who Saved the American Century. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007. ISBN 0-7432-7527-6
  13. ^ a b c d e "appC" (PDF). District of Columbia Department of Transportation. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d Cohn, D'Vera. "Suit Seeks to Stop D.C. Plans to Build Connector Highway." Washington Post. May 13, 1994.
  15. ^ The original southbound span was named for District of Columbia police office Kevin J. Welsh, who drowned in 1986 while attempting to save a woman who had attempted to commit suicide by leaping from the bridge into the Anacostia River. Welsh's body was never recovered, and the D.C. City Council renamed the southbound span in his honor. See: Kelly, John F. "Bridges Carry Bits of History Along With the Traffic." Washington Post. April 21, 2005.
  16. ^ District of Columbia Department of Transportation, 11th Street Bridge Design Workshop, May 25, 2005, p. 12.
  17. ^ a b c d e Levey, Bob and Levey, Jane Freundel. "End of The Roads." The Washington Post. November 26, 2000; Schrag, Zachary M. "The Freeway Fight in Washington, D.C.: The Three Sisters Bridge in Three Administrations." Journal of Urban History. 30:5 (July 2004); Mohl, Raymond A. "The Interstates and the Cities: The U.S. Department of Transportation and the Freeway Revolt, 1966-1973." Journal of Policy History. 20:2 (2008); Schrag, Zachary M. The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8018-8246-X; Rose, Mark H. Interstate: Express Highway Politics, 1939-1989. Rev. ed. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87049-671-9; Eisen, Jack. "Md. Vetoes I-95 Extension Into District." The Washington Post. July 13, 1973; Feaver, Douglas B. "Three Sisters Highway Project Is Killed - Again." The Washington Post. May 13, 1977.
  18. ^ a b c d e Lynton, Stephen J. "D.C. Plans to Link Two City Freeways." Washington Post. September 26, 1983.
  19. ^ a b c d Wheeler, Linda. "D.C. Freeway in Limbo." Washington Post. August 21, 1995.
  20. ^ a b c d Lippman, Thomas W. "D.C. Is Planning $850 Million For Maintenance, New Projects." Washington Post. January 5, 1981.
  21. ^ Lynton, Stephen J. "D.C. Reviving Long-Controversial Anacostia Road Plan." Washington Post. July 7, 1985.
  22. ^ Spencer, Duncan. "Hill Faces Another Classic Battle Over a Freeway." Roll Call. June 18, 1992.
  23. ^ Castaneda, Ruben. "Construction to Begin in '94 On Anacostia-SE Freeway Link." Washington Post. September 17, 1993.
  24. ^ Spencer, Duncan. "Road Project Hits Legal Dead End." Roll Call. February 3, 1994.
  25. ^ a b c Neufeld, Matt. "People Sue to Stop SE Freeway Proposal." Washington Times. May 13, 1994.
  26. ^ "Second Suit Seeks to Block Barney Circle Connector." Washington Post. May 21, 1994.
  27. ^ "2 Lawsuits Prompt U.S. to Push Back Barney Circle Project." Washington Post. June 9, 1994; Neufeld, Matt. "Barney Circle Project Stalled by Federal Suit." Washington Times. June 9, 1994.
  28. ^ Neufeld, Matt. "Barney Circle Plan Up in Air." Washington Times. August 18, 1994.
  29. ^ "Extra Soil Removal Raises Price of Freeway." Washington Times. October 21, 1994.
  30. ^ a b "Freeway Given Boost." Washington Post. April 19, 1996.
  31. ^ Harris, Hamil R. "Barney Circle Freeway Controversy Flares Anew." Washington Post. November 7, 1996.
  32. ^ Loeb, Vernon. "Norton Declares Barney Circle Freeway a Dead End." Washington Post. March 5, 1997.
  33. ^ The United States Department of Transportation uses the following scale to rate bridge component conditions:

    '0' Failed

    '1' Imminent
    '2' Critical
    '3' Serious
    '4' Poor
    '5' Fair
    '6' Satisfactory
    '7' Good
    '8' Very good

    '9' Excellent
    The ratings apply to the three primary components of a bridge: the deck, superstructure, and substructure. See: Federal Highway Administration. "Bridge System Conditions." In Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit: 2004 Conditions and Performance. Federal Transit Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.
  34. ^ a b c d e District of Columbia Department of Transportation. Re-Evaluation: 11th Street Bridges: Anacostia Freeway (I-295/DC 295) to Southeast/Southwest Freeway (I-695), Washington, D.C.[dead link] July 15, 2009.
  35. ^ District of Columbia Department of Transportation. Record of Decision: 11th Street Bridges: Anacostia Freeway (I-295/DC 295) to Southeast/Southwest Freeway (I-695), Washington, D.C. July 2, 2008.
  36. ^ Jenkins, Chris L. "'Every Neighborhood Needs a Cheers, and Maybe This Can Be Ours'." Washington Post. February 13, 2011.
  37. ^ a b Thomson, Robert. "DC to Rebuild 11th Street Bridges over Anacostia." Washington Post. April 24, 2009; Craig, Tim. "11th Street Bridge Plans Gets Go-Ahead." Washington Post. September 22, 2009.
  38. ^ Thomson, Robert. "Dr. G's Tips." Washington Post. July 12, 2009.
  39. ^ "Ramp Closures at 11th St. Bridge." Washington Post. December 20, 2009.
  40. ^ Thomson, Robert. "11th St. Bridge Work to Disrupt Traffic." Washington Post. October 25, 2010.
  41. ^ Thomson, Robert. "What's Ahead for D.C. Transportation?" Washington Post. October 21, 2010.
  42. ^ a b Thomson, Robert. "Anacostia Bridge Building in New Phase." Washington Post. November 5, 2010.
  43. ^ Thomson, Robert and Berman, Mark. "Big Year Ahead for Road, Rail." Washington Post. January 2, 2011.
  44. ^ "Dr. Gridlock's Traffic, Transit Tips." Washington Post. March 20, 2011.
  45. ^ a b Ruane, Michael E. "Protesters Demand Bridge Jobs." Washington Post. March 23, 2011.
  46. ^ a b Brookshire, Brook. "A Construction Project Committed to Hiring District Residents." Washington Post. March 25, 2011.
  47. ^ a b c Thomson, Robert. "Dr. Gridlock's Traffic, Transit Tips." Washington Post. May 1, 2011.
  48. ^ a b DeBonis, Mike. "A Hitch in City's Plan to Honor MLK." Washington Post. August 17, 2011.
  49. ^ a b Halsey III, Ashley. "Two Bridges Across Anacostia Are Ready Ahead of Schedule." Washington Post. December 17, 2011.
  50. ^ "Opening of Inbound 11th Street Bridge Should Start to Ease Commutes This Week in DC." Associated Press. December 19, 2011.
  51. ^ a b c Thomson, Robert. "D.C.'s 11th St. Bridge Opening in Phases." Washington Post. January 8, 2012.
  52. ^ Thomson, Robert. "Dr. Gridlock's Traffic Transit Tips." Washington Post. December 18, 2011.
  53. ^ Thomson, Robert. "Second Span of New 11th Street Bridge to Open." Washington Post. January 5, 2012.
  54. ^ The routes affected were 90, 92, 93, A42, A46, A48, B2, P2, P6, and U2. See: Thomson, Robert. "Bus Routes Detour for 11th St. Bridge Work." Washington Post. January 7, 2012.
  55. ^ Thomson, Robert. "Spring Changes for Nats Park." Washington Post. April 8, 2012.
  56. ^ Thomson, Robert (December 18, 2012). "D.C. Preparing to Open New Highway Link". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 
  57. ^ Thomson, Robert (August 18, 2011). "At Four-Way Stops, A Risky Maximization of Opportunity". The Washington Post. 
  58. ^ a b Thomson, Robert (May 27, 2012). "Piece By Piece at 11th Street Bridge". The Washington Post. 
  59. ^ a b c d Thomson, Robert (August 16, 2012). "Freeway Fragment to Undergo An Identity Swap". The Washington Post. 
  60. ^ a b c Thomson, Robert (October 7, 2012). "Bridge Ramps Remake D.C. Freeways". The Washington Post. 
  61. ^ Freeman, Amy (November 27, 2012). "Sousa Bridge Access to Freeway/395 to Close Thursday". WTOP.com. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 
  62. ^ DeBonis, Mike (November 28, 2011). "Interstate 695 Reappears in D.C.". The Washington Post. 
  63. ^ Thomson, Robert (December 30, 2012). "With A New Freeway Link, Is It Time to Reconsider How the Roads Are Marked?". The Washington Post. 
  64. ^ District of Columbia Department of Transportation (November 21, 2013). Barney Circle and Southeast Boulevard Transportation Planning Study (Report). Washington, D.C.: D.C. Department of Transportation. p. 2. http://greatergreater.com/files/2013/barneycircle.pdf. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  65. ^ District of Columbia Department of Transportation (March 6, 2014). Projects Update Meeting For Ward 7 (Report). Washington, D.C.: D.C. Department of Transportation. p. 10. http://ddot.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/ddot/publication/attachments/DDOTProjectsUpdateMeetingWard7_03052014.pdf. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  66. ^ a b Nevola, Molly. "Streetcars On Track for Return to D.C." Washington Times. March 15, 2009.
  67. ^ "Officials Tout Plan to Use Streetcars." Washington Times. February 26, 2009.
  68. ^ Sun, Lena H. "Streetcars Could Be Running on D.C. Roads by Late Next Year." Washington Post. July 13, 2008.
  69. ^ Broom, Scott. "DC's Streetcar Project Halted For Now." WUSA9.com. August 26, 2010. Accessed 2010-08-31.
  70. ^ Morrissey, Aaron. "DDOT Releases Updated Streetcar Plan." DCIST. October 20, 2010.
  71. ^ Kravitz, Derek. "Details Emerge for D.C. Streetcars, Set to Begin in 2012." Washington Post. October 24, 2010.
  72. ^ Ahlers, Mike M. "Ground Broken on $3.4 Billion Homeland Security Complex." CNN.com. September 9, 2009. Accessed 2012-04-28.
  73. ^ Medici, Andy. "Homeland Security Further Delays Headquarters Project." Federal Times. February 19, 2012.
  74. ^ Khan, Sarah. "H Street Streetcars Now On Track to Run By 2013." Washington Post. June 30, 2011.
  75. ^ McArdle, Terence. "D.C. News in Brief." Washington Post. January 19, 2012.
  76. ^ a b c d Purcell, Beth. "President's Column: Pure Adrenalin?" Capitol Hill Restoration Society News. April 2012, p. 2. Accessed 2012-04-28.
  77. ^ Alissa Walker (12 September 2014). "4 Futuristic Designs for DC's Very Own High Line". Gizmodo. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  78. ^ "High Line History". Friends of the High Line. Retrieved August 2, 2009. 
  79. ^ a b "11th Street Bridge Recreation and Destination Concept." Office of Planning. Office of the Mayor. Government of the District of Columbia. April 2012. Accessed 2012-04-28.
  80. ^ "11th Street Bridge Project." Community Communications Committee Meeting 10. 11th Street Bridge Project Office. Office of Planning. Office of the Mayor. Government of the District of Columbia. March 12, 2012.[dead link] Accessed 2012-04-28.
  81. ^ a b c Alpert, David. "Making a 'Recreation Bridge' Succeed." Washington Post. March 29, 2012. Accessed 2012-04-28.

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