From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
This article is about the year 1221.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1190s 1200s 1210s – 1220s – 1230s 1240s 1250s|
|Years:||1218 1219 1220 – 1221 – 1222 1223 1224|
|1221 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1221 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1974|
|Bahá'í calendar||−623 – −622|
|English Regnal year||5 Hen. 3 – 6 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
3917 or 3857
— to —
辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
3918 or 3858
|- Vikram Samvat||1277–1278|
|- Shaka Samvat||1143–1144|
|- Kali Yuga||4322–4323|
|Japanese calendar||Jōkyū 3
|Minguo calendar||691 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1764|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1221.|
- January – The Mongol army under Jochi captures the city of Gurganj (modern-day Konye-Urgench in Turkmenistan) and massacres the inhabitants, reported by contemporary scholars as being over a million.
- February – The oasis city of Merv on the Silk Road is sacked by the Mongols under Tolui at the orders of Genghis Khan. Contemporary scholars report over a million people are systematically killed in a genocide.
- May 13 – Emperor Juntoku is forced to abdicate and is briefly succeeded by his 2-year-old son Emperor Chūkyō on the throne of Japan. Ex-Emperor Go-Toba leads the unsuccessful Jōkyū War against the Kamakura shogunate.
- July 29 – 10-year-old Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan.
- Mid-December – John III Doukas Vatatzes becomes Byzantine Emperor (in the Empire of Nicaea).
- A large and highly efficient Mongol army, dispatched under Subutai by Genghis Khan to Georgia, defeats two Georgian armies around Tbilisi, but lacks the will or equipment to besiege the city.
- Genghis Khan enters the Indus Valley in modern-day Pakistan.
- Majd al-Mulk al-Muzaffar, the grand vizier of Greater Khorasan, is killed in a genocide by the Mongol invaders.
- The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
- Sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil ("Saphadin") who was a brother of Saladin, offers Jerusalem to the Crusaders for ten years in return for Damietta, which the Crusaders eventually give up in exchange for a safe retreat from the Nile Delta.
- The city of Nizhny Novgorod in Russia is founded.
- October 9 – Salimbene di Adam, Italian chronicler
- November 23 – King Alfonso X of Castile (d. 1284)
- Bonaventure, Italian theologian and saint (d. 1274)
- Boleslaus the Pious, Duke of Greater Poland (d. 1279)
- August 6 – Saint Dominic, Spanish founder of the Dominicans (b. 1170)
- October 4 – William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu (b. 1179)
- October 21 – Alix of Thouars, Duchess of Brittany (b. 1201)
- Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk
- Mutukan, 1st Son of Chagatai Khan
- Perkins, George W. "Mourning Attire". The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0804763887.
- George Akropolites. The History. Trans. Ruth Macrides. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 160.
- Jeune, Sir Francis Henry (1867). The Mahometan Power in India: The Arnold Prize Essay for 1867. p. 20.
- Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks (2008). "North-west Frontier Province". Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 189. ISBN 1741045428.
- Richard Bodley Scott; Graham Briggs; Rudy Scott Nelson (2009). Blood and Gold: The Americas at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 1846036917.
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883). The native races. 1882-86. British Columbia: History Company.
- Rayborn, Tim (9 October 2014). "Popular Religion, Heresy and Mendicancy". Against the Friars: Antifraternalism in Medieval France and England. McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 0786468319.
- Francisco Márquez Villanueva; Carlos Alberto Vega (1990). Alfonso X of Castile, the learned king, 1221-1284: an international symposium, Harvard University, 17 November 1984. Dept. of Romance Languages and Literatures of Harvard University. p. 165. ISBN 0940940434.
- M. Walsh, ed. (1991). Butler's Lives of the Saints. New York: HarperCollins. p. 216.
- Perkins, Charles Callahan (1864). "The Arca Di S. Domenico.". Tuscan sculptors: their lives, works and times, Volume 1. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green. p. 19.