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This article is about the year 1251. For the character encoding (codepage), see Windows-1251.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1220s 1230s 1240s – 1250s – 1260s 1270s 1280s|
|Years:||1248 1249 1250 – 1251 – 1252 1253 1254|
|1251 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1251 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2004|
|Bahá'í calendar||−593 – −592|
|English Regnal year||35 Hen. 3 – 36 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
3947 or 3887
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
3948 or 3888
|- Vikram Samvat||1307–1308|
|- Shaka Samvat||1173–1174|
|- Kali Yuga||4352–4353|
|Japanese calendar||Kenchō 3
|Minguo calendar||661 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1794|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1251.|
- April – The first Shepherds' Crusade, a domestic French uprising in response to events in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade, occurs.
- December 26 – King Alexander III of Scotland marries Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England, precipitating a power struggle between the two monarchs.
- Andrew de Longjumeau, dispatched two years earlier by King Louis IX of France as an ambassador to the Mongols, meets the king in Palestine, with reports from the Mongols and Tartary; his mission is considered a failure.
- Mindaugas of Lithuania is baptized, in prelude to his crowning as King of Lithuania in 1253.
- Alexander Nevsky signs the first peace treaty between Kievan Rus' and Norway.
- King Conrad IV of Germany invades Italy, but fails to subdue the supporters of Pope Innocent IV.
- The German city of Berlin, founded some 50 years earlier, receives its city charter.
- Ottokar II of Bohemia, later to become King of Bohemia, is elected Duke of Austria.
- The earliest known manuscript of The Proverbs of Alfred, a collection of sayings of England's Alfred the Great, is written.
- Möngke Khan is elected as the fourth great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
- The carving of the Tripitaka Koreana, a collection of Buddhist scriptures recorded on some 81,000 wooden blocks, is completed.
- September 2 – Francis of Fabriano, Italian writer (d. 1322)
- Hōjō Tokimune, 8th regent of the Kamakura shogunate (d. 1284)
- March 31 – William of Modena, Bishop of Modena
- June 6 – William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders
- September 2 – Viola, Duchess of Opole
- Bohemund V of Antioch
- Peter I, Duke of Brittany (b. 1190)
- Eljigidei, Mongol commander of Persia
- Isobel of Huntingdon (b. 1199)
- Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine
- Christian III von Weisenau, Archbishop of Mainz
- Jeanne de Dammartin, Count of Mortain
- Oghul Qaimish, the 3rd regent of the Mongol Empire, after her husband died.