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This article is about the year 1253.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1220s 1230s 1240s – 1250s – 1260s 1270s 1280s|
|Years:||1250 1251 1252 – 1253 – 1254 1255 1256|
|1253 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1253 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2006|
|Bahá'í calendar||−591 – −590|
|English Regnal year||37 Hen. 3 – 38 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)
3949 or 3889
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
3950 or 3890
|- Vikram Samvat||1309–1310|
|- Shaka Samvat||1175–1176|
|- Kali Yuga||4354–4355|
|Japanese calendar||Kenchō 5
|Minguo calendar||659 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1796|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1253.|
- July – William II, Count of Holland defeats the Flemish army at Westkapelle.
- July 6 – Mindaugas is crowned as the only King of Lithuania.
- A series of naval wars begins between the Italian city-states of Genoa and Venice, which will continue sporadically until 1371.
- King Henry III of England meets with English nobles and church leaders to reaffirm the validity of the Magna Carta.
- Pope Innocent IV returns to Rome, having left 9 years earlier in 1244 to depose Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and being unable to return until after Frederick's death, due to the agitation throughout Europe caused by that action.
- Having rebuffed the armed forces of Conrad IV of Germany, Pope Innocent IV offers Sicily to Edmund, son of King Henry III of England.
- Halych-Volynia becomes a vassal state to the expanding Mongol Empire.
- Matthew Paris writes Historia Anglorum, a work on English history.
- The Basilica of San Francesco, the earliest important structure in the Italian Gothic style of architecture, is completed in Assisi, Italy.
- Sligo Abbey is built in Sligo, Ireland.
- The Domus Conversorum, a building and institution in London for Jews who had converted to Christianity, is established by King Henry III of England.
- April 28 – Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, declares his intent to preach the Lotus Sutra and Nam Myoho Renge Kyo as the true Buddhism, thus founding Nichiren Buddhism.
- May – King Louis IX of France dispatches William of Rubruck from Constantinople on a missionary journey to convert the Tatars of central and eastern Asia. Later that year, William records the first meeting between European Christians and Buddhists.
- The Mongol Empire launches attacks on the Muslim cities of Baghdad and Cairo.
- The Mongol Empire destroys the Kingdom of Dali in modern Yunnan and incorporates the region into their empire.
- Kublai Khan introduces the baisha xiyue song and dance suite to the music of Yunnan.
- The Chinese era Baoyou begins in the Southern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Mongols defeat the Thai confederacy.
- March 20 – Magadu, renamed Wareru, founder of Ramanya Kingdom, renamed Hanthawady Kingdom of Pegu (b. a commoner; d. on a Saturday in January 1307)
- October 17 – Saint Ivo of Kermartin, French canon lawyer
- John I, Duke of Brabant (d. 1294)
- Hugh II of Cyprus (d. 1267)
- January 18 – King Henry I of Cyprus (b. 1217)
- January 19 – Dogen, Japanese founder of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism
- April 3 – Saint Richard of Chichester
- June 24 – Amadeus IV of Savoy (b. 1197)
- July 8 – Theobald IV of Champagne (b. 1201)
- August 11 – Clare of Assisi, Italian follower of Francis of Assisi (b. 1194)
- September 23 – Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia
- October 9 – Robert Grosseteste, English statesman and theologian