125 mm smoothbore ammunition

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The following is a list of ammunition fired by the 125 mm smoothbore gun series used in the T-64, T-72, T-80, M-84, T-90, PT-91 and other tanks derived from those designs, as well as the 2A45 Sprut Anti-Tank gun.

APFSDS-T[edit]

Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot tracer or APFSDS-T rounds. Typically used against other modern tanks.

3VBM3/3BM9/10[edit]

Entered service in 1962. The projectile is Maraging steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 410 mm 10: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.67 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.6 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1800 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 5.8 MJ
  • Penetration: 245 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 80 mm at 60° at 2000 m, (energy at 2000 m is 4.2 MJ)[1]

3VBM6/3BM12/13[edit]

Entered service (estimated) in 1968. Essentially the same as the 3BM9 projectile with a tungsten carbide plug.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 410 mm 10: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.67 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.6 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1800 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 5.8 MJ
  • Penetration: 280 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 110 mm at 60° at 2000 m, (energy at 2000 m is 4.2 MJ)[1]

3VBM7/3BM15/16[edit]

BM15 APFSDS projectile.

Entered service (estimated 1972). A slightly longer 3BM12 projectile.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 435 mm 12: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.9 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.9 kg including 2.9 kg and 0.27 kg tungsten carbide plug
  • Muzzle velocity: 1780 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 6.2 MJ
  • Penetration: 310 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 120 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM8/3BM17/18[edit]

Entered service (estimated 1972). An export version of the 3BM-15 without the tungsten carbide plug.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 450 mm 12: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.9 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.9 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1760 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 6.2 MJ
  • Penetration: 290 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 110 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM9/3BM22/23[edit]

Entered service 1976. Tungsten carbide penetrator core sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 400 mm 11: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.55 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.485 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1760 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 380 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 170 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM10/3BM29/30[edit]

Entered service 1982. Depleted Uranium-nickel-iron alloy sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 450 mm 12: 1 L/d - including 250 mm core.
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.55 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 430 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 210 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM11/3BM26/27[edit]

Entered service 1983. Tungsten-nickel-iron alloy core sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 395 mm 11: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.8 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1720 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.5 MJ
  • Penetration: 410 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 200 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM13/3BM32/33[edit]

Entered service in 1985. The projectile is a depleted uranium-nickel-zinc alloy, sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 380 mm 13: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration 500 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 250 mm at 60° at 2000 m,

3VBM17/3BM42 (3BM44)[edit]

A BM-42 APFSDS projectile.

Entered service in 1986. The projectile is a tungsten alloy core sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 452 mm 15: 1 L/d
  • Round weight: 20.4 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg [2]
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 450 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 220 mm at 60° at 2000 m.

3VBM19/3BM42M (3BM44M)[edit]

Entered service in 1994 Utilising an improved penetrator and a new Sabot. Reported to be tungsten alloy.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: 570 mm 22: 1 L/d
  • Round weight: ?
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.95 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1750 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.4 MJ (estimated - assuming 4.85 kg projectile)
  • Penetration: 650 mm at 0° at 2000 m

3VBM??/3BM46 (3BM48 "Svinets")[edit]

Entered service in 1991 Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be Uranium alloy.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: 546 mm : 22? L/d
  • Round weight: 4.85 kg
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?.?? kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: ?.? MJ
  • Penetration: 600 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 300 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM??/3BM46 (3BM48 "Свинец-2")[edit]

Entered service : Unknown. Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be tungsten alloy.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: ??? mm
  • Round weight: Unknown
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?.?? kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700? m/s
  • Muzzle energy: ?.? MJ
  • Penetration: 800?? mm at 0° at 2000?? m

HEAT-FS[edit]

High-explosive anti-tank fin stabilised or HEAT-FS rounds. Typically used against lighter or older tanks and Armoured personnel carriers.

3VBK7/3BK12[edit]

Entered service 1962.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, Steel liner, A-IX-1 (RDX phlegmatized with 5% wax), I-238 detonator
  • Penetration: 420 mm RHA at 0 degrees.

3BK12M[edit]

Entered service 1968. Uses improved 3V-15 detonator.

3VBK10/3BK14[edit]

Entered service 1968.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, Steel liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Charge weight: 1.62 kg
  • Penetration: 450 mm RHA at 0 degrees.

3BK14M[edit]

3BK14M Round.

Improved version, replacing steel liner with a copper liner.[2]

3VBK16/3BK18[edit]

Entered service estimated 1975.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 29.0 kg
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, copper liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Penetration: 500 mm RHA at 0 degrees.

3BK18M[edit]

Improved warhead. Entered service estimated 1978. Introduces wave shaping booster.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 19.02 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Penetration: 550 mm RHA at 0 degrees.

3VBK17/3BK21[edit]

Entered service estimated 1980. Enhancements to improve reliability of the copper jet formation.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, copper liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Penetration: 550 mm RHA at 0 degrees.

3BK21B[edit]

Entered service estimated 1982. Depleted uranium Liner to enhance penetration of advanced composite armours like Chobham.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Penetration: 750 mm RHA at 0 degrees.[3]

3VBK21/3BK25[edit]

Entered service estimated 1985.

3VBK25/3BK29[edit]

A 3BK29 HEAT round.

Entered service estimated 1988.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 28.4 kg
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 18.4 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 915 m/s
  • Penetration: 350mm to 400mm RHA at 60 degree tandem charge

An experimental HEAT round that is obviously in close relationship with 3BK29 was displayed on VTTV-97 exhibition in Omsk. Its cutaway shows a very complex and ingenious design, including shaped-charge precursor, the channel through the middle charge to allow passage of the rear jet and so on. The round is credited with 800mm RHA penetration which was illustrated by a picture of an 800mm penetration route. The picture shows that designers probably deliberately misaligned the charges so that the middle jet doesn't need to penetrate the core of the rear one. If the color of the liner is the same as that on the real round, it indicates that it is not copper, and therefore may have a significantly improved performance against ceramic armors. .[4]

3VBK27?/3BK29M[edit]

First seen publicly in 1998. Reportedly a triple charge warhead.[3]

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile weight: 18.4 kg
  • Charge weight: 1.62 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 915 m/s
  • Penetration: Estimated at 800 mm triple charge HEAT.[5]

HE-FRAG-FS[edit]

High Explosive Fragmentation Fin Stabilised. General purpose rounds, for use against infantry, bunkers and light vehicles and other 'soft' targets.

3VOF22/3OF19[edit]

A OF-19 HE-FRAG projectile.

Entered service in 1962. Uses the 3V-21 detonator (mass = 0.431 kg, reliability = 0.98). The 90% lethal zone for infantry is reported to be 40 m wide and 20 m deep.[2]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 33.0 kg
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Max dispersion: 0.23 mil (0.23 mrad)
  • Charge weight: 3.148 kg
  • Charge: TNT

3VOF36/3OF26[edit]

A 3OF26 HE-FRAG round.

Entered service in 1970. Uses the 3V-21 detonator (mass = 0.431 kg, reliability = 0.98). The projectile creates between 600 and 2,000 fragments.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 33.0 kg
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Max dispersion: 0.23 mil (0.23 mrad)
  • Charge weight: 3.148 kg
  • Charge: A-IX-2 (73% RDX, 23% aluminium powder, phlegmatized with 4% wax) 3.4 kg

ATGW/ATGM[edit]

9M112 Kobra[edit]

The 9K112 Kobra round in flight configuration

The 9K112 Kobra (NATO reporting name is AT-8 Songster) is also fired from the 125 mm main guns of the T-64 and T-80 series of tanks.[6]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 23.2 kg
  • Warhead weight: 4.5 kg
  • Guidance system: Radio-command guided
  • Range: 100 – 4000 metres
  • Penetration: Estimated at 600 millimetres (24 in) tandem charge HEAT.

9M119 Refleks[edit]

The 9M119 Svir and 9M119M Refleks (NATO reporting name: AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile has semi-automatic laser beam-riding guidance and a tandem hollow-charge HEAT warhead. It has an effective range of 75 m to 5000 m, and takes 17.6 seconds to reach maximum range. Refleks can penetrate about 900 millimetres (35 in) of steel armour and can also engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters.[6]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 16.5 kg
  • Warhead weight: 4.5 kg
  • Guidance system: Laser-beam riding
  • Range: 75 – 5000 metres
  • Penetration: Estimated at 900 millimetres (35 in) tandem charge HEAT.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]