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This article is about the year 1278.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1240s 1250s 1260s – 1270s – 1280s 1290s 1300s|
|Years:||1275 1276 1277 – 1278 – 1279 1280 1281|
|1278 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1278 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2031|
|Bahá'í calendar||−566 – −565|
|English Regnal year||6 Edw. 1 – 7 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
3974 or 3914
— to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
3975 or 3915
|- Vikram Samvat||1334–1335|
|- Shaka Samvat||1200–1201|
|- Kali Yuga||4379–4380|
|Japanese calendar||Kenji 4 / Kōan 1
|Minguo calendar||634 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1821|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1278.|
- May 8 – Emperor Duanzong of Song China dies of illness and is succeeded by his brother Zhao Bing, who becomes Emperor Huaizong of Song. Meanwhile, armed forces under the control of Mongol leader Kublai Khan draw closer to the remnants of the Song imperial court. A year later at the Battle of Yamen the Song dynasty will cease to exist, becoming incorporated into the Yuan dynasty of China.
- The Japanese era Kenji ends, and the Kōan era begins.
- August 5 – King Alfonso X of Castile begins the Siege of Algeciras (at this time under the control of Morocco), the first of many the city will suffer during the Spanish Reconquista. He will be forced to abandon it about a year later.
- August 26 – Battle on the Marchfeld at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen: Kings Rudolf I of Germany and Ladislaus IV of Hungary defeat King Ottokar II of Bohemia in a match of over 80,000 men and the largest battle of knights in the Middle Ages. The battle ends a power struggle between Rudolph and Otakar over the fate of central Europe, and Rudolf's House of Habsburg will continue to rule Austria and other captured territories until the end of World War I in 1918.
- September 29 – Peter III of Aragon takes the Muslim stronghold of Montesa putting an end to two years of Mudéjar rebellion. The defeated Muslims are expelled from the realm and go into exile.
- The independence, boundaries, and political structure of Andorra are agreed to by the catalan Bishop of Urgell and the Count of Foix.
- End of the so-called War of the Cow which had begun in 1275 in what will become Wallonia.
Arts and culture
- The earliest known written copy of the Avesta, a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.
- Giles of Lessines writes his De usuris. He estimates that some credit contracts need not to be usurious as "future things are not estimated to be of such value as those collected in the instant". The prevalence of this view in the usury debate allows for the development of the financial industry in Catholic Europe.
- An edict by Pope Nicholas III requires all Jews to attend conversion sermons.
- November 10 – Philip I, Prince of Taranto (d. 1332)
- Constantine I (III), King of Armenia (d. c. 1310)
- Ferdinand of Majorca (d. 1316)
- Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (d. 1322)
- February 10 – Margaret II, Countess of Flanders (b. 1202)
- May 1 – William II of Villehardouin
- May 8 – Emperor Duanzong of Song China (b. 1268)
- June 30 – Pierre de La Broce, French courtier
- August 26 – King Ottokar II of Bohemia
- Al-Nawawi, distinguished Islamic scholar (b. 1233)
- Ulrich von Liechtenstein, knight, politician, and minnesinger (b. 1200)
- Nicola Pisano, Italian sculptor
- de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 120. ISBN 90-04-11244-8.
- Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review 15 (3): 506–562.