From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1250s 1260s 1270s – 1280s – 1290s 1300s 1310s|
|Years:||1282 1283 1284 – 1285 – 1286 1287 1288|
|1285 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1285 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2038|
|Bahá'í calendar||-559 – -558|
|English Regnal year||13 Edw. 1 – 14 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
3981 or 3921
— to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
3982 or 3922
|- Vikram Samvat||1341–1342|
|- Shaka Samvat||1207–1208|
|- Kali Yuga||4386–4387|
|Japanese calendar||Kōan 8
|Minguo calendar||627 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1828|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1285.|
- April 25 – Mamluk sultan Qalawun begins a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in modern-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captures the fortress a month later.
- June 14 – Tran Hung Dao leads Vietnamese forces in victory over an invading Mongol fleet of the Yuan dynasty at Chuong Duong.
- January 6 – Archbishop Jakub Świnka orders all priests subject to his bishopry in Poland to deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity.
- April – Chios is captured by Venetian raiders from its Genoese lords. It is later retaken.
- Easter – The Second Statute of Westminster is passed in England, reforming various laws; it includes the clause de donis conditionalibus, considered one of the fundamental institutes of medieval law in England.
- September 4 – Roger of Lauria defeats King Philip III of France in a naval battle off Barcelona.
- The writ Circumspecte Agatis, issued by King Edward I of England, defines the jurisdictions of church and state in England, thereby limiting the church's judicial powers to ecclesiastical cases only.
- First record of an emission of life annuities by the city of Lübeck. It is the first instance of issue of public debt in Germany and it confirms a trend of consolidation of local public debt over north-western Europe (see 1228).
- The county of Champagne is integrated into the kingdom of France, the region loses its haven characteristics for foreign merchants and the fairs of Troyes quickly dwindle into economic insignificance.
- March 9 – Emperor Go-Nijo of Japan (d. 1308)
- May 1 – Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, English politician (d. 1326)
- December 6 – King Ferdinand IV of Castile (d. 1312)
- date unknown
- January 7 – King Charles I of Sicily (b. 1227)
- March 24 – Daumantas, Grand Prince of Lithuania
- March 28 – Pope Martin IV
- May 13 – Robert de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros
- May 20 – John II of Jerusalem, King of Cyprus (b. 1259)
- July 7 – Tile Kolup, German impostor claiming to be Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (executed)
- August 16 – Philip I of Savoy (b. 1207)
- October 5 – King Philip III of France (b. 1245)
- November 11 – King Peter III of Aragon (b. 1239)
- date unknown – Rutebeuf, French troubadour
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17565-5.
- Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1991). Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506774-6.