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This article is about the year 1290.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1260s 1270s 1280s – 1290s – 1300s 1310s 1320s|
|Years:||1287 1288 1289 – 1290 – 1291 1292 1293|
|1290 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1290 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2043|
|Bahá'í calendar||−554 – −553|
|English Regnal year||18 Edw. 1 – 19 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)
3986 or 3926
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
3987 or 3927
|- Vikram Samvat||1346–1347|
|- Shaka Samvat||1212–1213|
|- Kali Yuga||4391–4392|
|Japanese calendar||Shōō 3
|Minguo calendar||622 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1833|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1290.|
- Year without winter – Exceptionally rare instance of uninterrupted transition from autumn 1289 to following spring in Britain and mainland western Europe.
- March 1 – The University of Coimbra is founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moves to Coimbra in 1308.
- July 18 – By the Edict of Expulsion, King Edward I of England orders all Jews (at this time probably numbering around 2,000) to leave England by November 1 (All Saints Day); on the Hebrew calendar this is Tisha B'Av, a day that commemorates many calamities.
- August 1 – The country of Wallachia is founded (traditional date).
- December – The twelve Eleanor crosses are erected between Lincolnshire and London in England as King Edward I mourns the death of his queen consort Eleanor of Castile.
- December 18 – Upon the death of Magnus III, he is succeeded by his 10-year-old son Birger as king of Sweden. Although Sweden is an elective monarchy at this time, Birger has been appointed heir to the throne already in 1284.
- Construction of Llandaff Cathedral is completed in Cardiff, Wales, 170 years after it was begun.
- The Mongol Golden Horde invades the Bessarabia region of Moldavia.
- The second of the Statutes of Mortmain are passed under King Edward I of England, which prevents land from passing into possession of the church. The statute Quia Emptores is also passed, reforming the feudal system of land leases and allowing the sale of fee simple estates.
- King Denis of Portugal decrees that Portuguese be the official language of Portugal, replacing classical Latin in that capacity.
- Construction on the Akershus Fortress of Oslo, Norway is begun.
- September 27 – An earthquake in the Gulf of Chili, province of Hebei, China, kills an estimated 100,000.
- The founding Mamluk dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi is overthrown by Jalal-ud-din Feroz Khalji of the Khilji dynasty.
- August 4 – Duke Leopold I, Duke of Austria (d. 1326)
- Margaret of Burgundy (d. 1315)
- Jean de Muris, French philosopher and mathematician (d. 1351)
- January 28 – Dervorguilla of Galloway, mother of king John I of Scotland (b. c. 1210)
- May 10 – Rudolph II, duke of Austria 1282–1283 (b. 1270)
- June 8 – Beatrice Portinari, object of Dante Alighieri's adoration (b. 1266)
- June 23 – Henry IV Probus, duke of Wrocław since 1266 and high duke of Kraków since 1268 (b. c. 1258)
- July 10 – Ladislaus IV, king of Hungary since 1272 (b. 1262)
- September 26 – Margaret, Maid of Norway Queen of Scotland (b. 1283)
- November 10 – Al Mansur Qalawun, Sultan of Egypt since 1279 (b. c. 1222)
- November 28 – Eleanor of Castile, queen of Edward I of England (b. 1241)
- December 18 – Magnus III, king of Sweden since 1275 (b. 1240)
- Gregory II, Patriarch of Constantinople 1283–1289 (b. 1241)
- Mundill, Robin R. (2002). England's Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262-1290. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52026-6. p. 27.