12th United States Congress

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12th United States Congress
USCapitol1800.jpg
United States Capitol (1800)

Duration: March 4, 1811 – March 4, 1813

Senate President: George Clinton (1811–1812)
Vacant (1812–1813)
Senate Pres. pro tem: William H. Crawford
House Speaker: Henry Clay
Members: 36 Senators
143 Representatives
4 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic-Republican
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

Sessions
1st: November 4, 1811 – July 6, 1812
2nd: November 2, 1812 – March 3, 1813
<11th 13th>

The Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1811 to March 4, 1813, during the third and fourth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

States admitted and territories organized[edit]

Senate President
George Clinton
Senate President pro tempore
William H. Crawford
House Speaker
Henry Clay

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate[edit]

During this congress, two new Senate seats were added for the new state of Louisiana.

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress 27 7 34 0
Begin 27 6 33 1
End 30 36 0
Final voting share 83.3% 16.7%
Beginning of the next congress 27 6 33 3

House of Representatives[edit]

During this congress, one new House seat was added for the new state of Louisiana.

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress 95 46 141 1
Begin 106 36 142 0
End 1
Final voting share 74.6% 25.4%
Beginning of the next congress 108 68 176 6

Leadership[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1814; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1816; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1812

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • replacements: 1
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 4
  • interim appointments: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • vacancies:1
  • Total seats with changes: 6


State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Massachusetts
(2)
Vacant Vacancy in term Joseph B. Varnum (DR) Seated June 29, 1811
Rhode Island
(1)
Christopher G. Champlin (F) Resigned October 2, 1811 William Hunter (F) Seated October 28, 1811
Tennessee
(2)
Jenkin Whiteside (DR) Resigned October 8, 1811 George W. Campbell (DR) Appointed October 8, 1811
Louisiana
(3)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812. Seats remained vacant until September 3, 1812. Allan B. Magruder (DR) Installed September 3, 1812
Louisiana
(2)
New seat Jean Noel Destréhan (DR)
Jean N. Destréhan (DR) Resigned October 1, 1812 without having qualified Thomas Posey (DR) Appointed October 8, 1812
Thomas Posey (DR) Successor chosen February 4, 1813 James Brown (DR) Seated February 5, 1813

House of Representatives[edit]

  • replacements: 3
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 5
  • contested election: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • vacancies: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Maryland
6th
John Montgomery (DR) Resigned April 29, 1811 to become Attorney General of Maryland Stevenson Archer (DR) Seated October 26, 1811
Massachusetts
4th
Joseph B. Varnum (DR) Resigned June 29, 1811 to become U.S. Senator William M. Richardson (DR) Seated November 4, 1811
Virginia
8th
John Hungerford (DR) Lost contested election November 29, 1811 John Taliaferro (DR) Seated November 29, 1811
Massachusetts
17th
Barzillai Gannett (DR) Resigned sometime in 1812 before April 6 ([Data unknown/missing. You can help!]) Francis Carr (DR) Seated April 6, 1812
North Carolina
3rd
Thomas Blount (DR) Died February 7, 1812 William Kennedy (DR) Seated January 30, 1813
Orleans Territory Julien de Lallande Poydras had resigned in the previous Congress, and the seat remained vacant until the territory became the state of Louisiana on April 30, 1812 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Seated April 30, 1812
Louisiana
At-large
New York
6th
Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) Resigned May 6, 1812 Thomas P. Grosvenor (F) Seated January 29, 1813
Georgia
At-large
Howell Cobb (DR) Resigned sometime before October 1812 ([Data unknown/missing. You can help!]) William Barnett (DR) Seated October 5, 1812
Missouri Territory Territory delegate seat established Edward Hempstead Seated November 9, 1812
Illinois Territory Territory delegate seat established Shadrach Bond Seated December 3, 1812
Pennsylvania
9th
John Smilie (DR) Died December 30, 1812 Vacant Not filled until next Congress

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]