12th century in literature

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The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase in the production of Latin texts and a proliferation of literate clerics from the multiplying cathedral schools. At the same time, vernacular literatures ranging from Provençal to Icelandic embodied in lyric and romance the values and worldview of an increasingly self-conscious and prosperous courtly aristocracy. These two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters with a lasting influence on the development of literature in the following centuries.

Events[edit]

Histories[edit]

Philosophy/Theology[edit]

Biography/Hagiography[edit]

Epic/Saga/Chanson du Geste[edit]

Romance[edit]

Fable[edit]

  • 1121 Kalīleh o Demneh (Persian: کلیله و دمنه‎), translation of the Panchatantra made by Abu'l Ma'ali Nasr Allah Munshi

Drama[edit]

Lyric[edit]

Linguistics[edit]

Topography[edit]

  • 1191 Itinerarium Cambriae by Gerald of Wales
  • 1194 Descriptio Cambriae by Gerald of Wales

Encyclopedias[edit]

Authors[edit]

In literature[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lu, You (2007). Watson, Philip, ed. Grand Canal, Great River: the travel diary of a twelfth-century Chinese poet. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 9780711227194. 
  2. ^ Minhaj-i-Siraj (1260), Tabaqat-i Nasiri 
  3. ^ Dalrymple, William. The Buddha and the Sahibs. 
  4. ^ Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen 42 (2): 141. doi:10.1163/1568527952598657. 
  5. ^ Sen, Gertrude Emerson (1964). The Story of Early Indian Civilization. Orient Longmans. 
  6. ^ Abridged in Flores Historiarum. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature vol. II, chapter XIII, section 10.