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|Centuries:||13th century – 14th century – 15th century|
|Decades:||1310s 1320s 1330s – 1340s – 1350s 1360s 1370s|
|Years:||1339 1340 1341 – 1342 – 1343 1344 1345|
|1342 by topic|
|State leaders - Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1342 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2095|
|Bahá'í calendar||−502 – −501|
|English Regnal year||15 Edw. 3 – 16 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar||辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
4038 or 3978
— to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
4039 or 3979
|- Vikram Samvat||1398–1399|
|- Shaka Samvat||1264–1265|
|- Kali Yuga||4443–4444|
|Japanese calendar||Ryakuō 5 / Kōei (era) 1
|Minguo calendar||570 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1885|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1342.|
- May 7 – Pope Clement VI succeeds Pope Benedict XII as the 198th pope.
- July 16 – Louis I becomes king of Hungary.
- July 18 – Mu'izz al-Din Husayn defeats the Sarbadars in the Battle of Zava.
- August 15 – Louis "the Child" becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens.
- September 4 – John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond.
- Guy de Lusignan becomes King Gosdantin II of Armenia.
- The Patriarch of Antioch is transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II.
- Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol.
- The Zealots seize power in Thessalonica, expelling its aristocrats and declaring themselves in favour of the regency in the ongoing Byzantine civil war.
- January 15 – Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (d. 1404)
- April 6 – Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa (d. after 1363)
- November 8 – Julian of Norwich, English mystic (approximate date; d. 1413)
- date unknown
- January 29 – Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1279)
- February 16 – William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros
- April 24 – Pope Benedict XII
- July 16 – King Charles I of Hungary
- September 4 – Anna Anachoutlou, Empress of Trebizond
- November 29 – Michael of Cesena, Italian Franciscan leader (b. 1270)
- date unknown
- probable – Marsilius of Padua, Italian scholar (b. 1270)