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|Centuries:||14th century – 15th century – 16th century|
|Decades:||1440s 1450s 1460s – 1470s – 1480s 1490s 1500s|
|Years:||1475 1476 1477 – 1478 – 1479 1480 1481|
|1478 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Architecture - Art|
|State leaders - Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1478 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2231|
|English Regnal year||17 Edw. 4 – 18 Edw. 4|
— to —戊戌年十二月初八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1534–1535|
|- Shaka Samvat||1400–1401|
|- Kali Yuga||4579–4580|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||478–479|
|Japanese calendar||Bunmei 10
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1478 MCDLXXVIII|
|Minguo calendar||434 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2021|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1478|
- January 14 – Novgorod surrenders to Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow.
- January 15 – Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, aged four, is married to five-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk.
- February 18 – George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London.
- April 26 – The Pazzi attack Lorenzo de' Medici, and kill his brother Giuliano, during High Mass in Florence Cathedral.
- May 14 – Siege of Shkodra begins.
- November – Eskender succeeds his father Baeda Maryam as Emperor of Ethiopia at the age of six.
- December 28 – Battle of Giornico: Swiss troops defeat the Milanese.
Date unknown 
- Lorenzo de' Medici becomes sole ruler of Florence.
- The Fourth Siege of Krujë by the Ottoman Empire of Krujë in Albania concludes and results in the town's capture after the failure of three prior sieges.
- Vladislav II of Bohemia makes peace with Hungary.
- Possibly the first reference to cricket, in "criquet", as discovered in France by Rowland Bowen in the 20th century. It has been dismissed by some (most notably John Major) and presaged with Edward II's "Creag" (1300) by others.
- First printing (in Padua) of Mondino de Liuzzi's Anathomia corporis humani, the first complete published anatomical text.
- February 7 – Thomas More, English statesman and humanist (d. 1535)
- March 12 – Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence (d. 1516)
- May 26 – Pope Clement VII (d. 1534)
- June 30 – John, Prince of Asturias, Son of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile (d. 1497)
- July 22 – King Philip I of Castile (d. 1506)
- August – Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, Spanish historian (d. 1557)
- December 6 – Baldassare Castiglione, Italian writer and diplomat (d. 1529)
- date unknown
- probable – Thomas Ashwell, English composer
- February 18 – George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England (executed) (b. 1449)
- April 26 – Giuliano di Piero de' Medici, son of Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (assassinated) (b. 1453)
- June 12 – Ludovico II of Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua (b. 1412)
- August 28 – Donato Acciaioli, Italian scholar (b. 1428)
- November 8 – Emperor Baeda Maryam of Ethiopia (b. 1448)