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|Centuries:||14th century – 15th century – 16th century|
|Decades:||1460s 1470s 1480s – 1490s – 1500s 1510s 1520s|
|Years:||1489 1490 1491 – 1492 – 1493 1494 1495|
|1492 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Architecture - Art|
|State leaders - Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1492 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2245|
|English Regnal year||7 Hen. 7 – 8 Hen. 7|
— to —壬子年十二月十三日
|- Vikram Samvat||1548–1549|
|- Shaka Samvat||1414–1415|
|- Kali Yuga||4593–4594|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||492–493|
|Japanese calendar||Entoku 4Meiō 1
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1492 MCDXCII|
|Minguo calendar||420 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2035|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1492|
- January 2 – Fall of Granada: Muhammad XIIl, the last Moorish Emir of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, after a lengthy siege, ending the 10-year Granada War and the centuries-long Reconquista and bringing an end to 780 years of Muslim control in Al-Andalus. Christopher Columbus is in Alhambra, and sees the Moorish king come out of the city gates and kiss the hands of the Spanish king, queen and prince.
- January 6 – Ferdinand and Isabella enter into Granada.
- January 23 – The Pentateuch is first printed.
- March 31 – Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra decree, expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.
- April 17 – The Capitulations of Santa Fe were signed.
- July 31 – The Jews are expelled from Spain; 40,000–200,000 leave. Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning about the expulsion of Jews from Spain, dispatches the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands, mainly to the cities of Thessaloniki (currently in Greece) and İzmir (currently in Turkey).
- August 3 – Christopher Columbus sails on his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, intending to reach Asia.
- August 11 – Pope Alexander VI succeeds Pope Innocent VIII as the 214th pope, after the 1492 papal conclave, the first held in the Sistine Chapel.
- October – English army besieges Boulogne-sur-Mer.
- October 11 – Several members of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus witness an unusual light.
- October 12 – Christopher Columbus' expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean and lands on Guanahani, but he believes he has reached the East Indies.
- October 28 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba.
- November 3 – Peace of Etaples signed between England and France, ending French support for the pretender to the English throne Perkin Warbeck. All English-held territory in France with the exception of Calais is returned to France.
- November 7 – The Ensisheim meteorite, a 127-kg meteorite, lands in a wheat field near the village of Ensisheim in Alsace.
- December 5 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first known European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.
- December 31 – About 100,000 Jews are expelled from Sicily.
Date unknown 
- Antonio de Nebrija publishes the first grammar text for the language of Castile in Salamanca, which he introduces to Ferdinand and Isabella as "a tool of empire."
- Martin Behaim constructs the first surviving globe of Earth, the Erdapfel. As Columbus would only return from his voyage in 1493, this globe does not show the New World yet.
- Casimir IV Jagiello, of the Jagiello Royal House, ends his reign (1427–1492).
- The first arboretum to be designed and planted is the Arboretum Trsteno, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
- Russians build a fortress in Ivangorod, on the eastern banks of the Narva river.
- In Ming Dynasty China, the commercial transportation of grain to the northern border in exchange for salt certificates is monetized.
- Ermysted's Grammar School, Skipton, North Yorkshire, founded.
- Marsilio Ficino publishes his translation and commentary of Plotinus.
- March 4 – Francesco de Layolle, Italian composer (d. c. 1540)
- March 27 – Adam Ries, German mathematician (d. 1559)
- April 4 – Ambrosius Blarer, German religious reformer (d. 1564)
- April 11 – Marguerite de Navarre, queen of Henry II of Navarre (d. 1549)
- April 20 – Pietro Aretino, Italian author (d. 1556)
- July 2 – Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England (d. 1495)
- September 7 – Giacomo Aconcio, Italian pioneer of religious tolerance (d. 1566)
- September 12 – Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino (d. 1519)
- date unknown
- January 25 – Ygo Gales Galama, Frisian warlord and freedom-fighting rebel (murdered) (b. 1443)
- April 9 – Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence (b. 1449)
- June 7
- July 25 – Pope Innocent VIII (b. 1432)
- October 12 – Piero della Francesca, Italian artist (b. c. 1412)
- October 25 – Thaddeus McCarthy, Irish bishop (b. c. 1455)
- November 6 – Antoine Busnois, French composer and poet (b. c. 1430)
- November 19 – Jami, Persian poet (b. 1414)
- November 24 – Loys of Gruuthuse, Earl of Winchester (b. c. 1427)
- October 31 – Anne Neville, Countess of Warwick (b. 1426)
- October 31 – Sir Nicholas de Mimsy Porpington (Ghost of Gryffindor House)
- date unknown – Baccio Pontelli, Italian architect (b. c. 1450)
- date unknown' – Sunni Ali