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This article is about the year 1546.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1510s 1520s 1530s – 1540s – 1550s 1560s 1570s|
|Years:||1543 1544 1545 – 1546 – 1547 1548 1549|
|1546 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2299|
|Bahá'í calendar||−298 – −297|
|English Regnal year||37 Hen. 8 – 38 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4242 or 4182
— to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4243 or 4183
|- Vikram Samvat||1602–1603|
|- Shaka Samvat||1468–1469|
|- Kali Yuga||4647–4648|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 15
|Minguo calendar||366 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2089|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1546.|
- May 19 – Siege of Kawagoe Castle ends in a battle with a defeat for the Uesugi clan in their attempt to regain Kawagoe Castle from the Late Hōjō clan in Japan.
- June 7 – Treaty of Ardres (also known as the Treaty of Camp) is signed, resulting in peace between the kingdoms of England and France, ending the Italian War of 1542–1546.
- July 10 – The Schmalkaldic War, a political struggle between imperial forces under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Lutheran forces of the Schmalkaldic League, begins.
- December – Trinity College, Cambridge, founded by Henry VIII of England.
- Christ Church, Oxford, refounded by Henry VIII of England under this name.
- Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg.
- Michelangelo is made chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- The Spanish conquest of Yucatán is completed.
- Potosí, in modern day Bolivia, is founded by the Spanish as a mining town. The silver mined from Huayna Potosí mountain in Potosí provides most of the wealth on which the Spanish Empire is based until its fall in the early 19th century.
- January 27 – Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1608)
- May 5 – Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, English politician (d. 1623)
- June 24 – Robert Parsons, English Jesuit priest (d. 1610)
- July 4 – Murat III, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1595)
- December 14 – Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer (d. 1601)
- date unknown
- William Barclay, Scottish jurist (d. 1608)
- Luca Bati, Italian Baroque composer (d. 1608)
- Philippe Desportes, French poet (d. 1606)
- Thomas Digges, English astronomer (d. 1595)
- Takeda Katsuyori, Japanese nobleman (d. 1582)
- Tobias Matthew, archbishop of York (d. 1628)
- Mikołaj VII Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (d. 1565)
- Gasparo Tagliacozzi, Italian surgeon and anatomist (d. 1599)
- probable – Lodewijk Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1617)
- January 11 – Gaudenzio Ferrari, Italian painter and sculptor (b. c. 1471)
- January 21 – Azai Sukemasa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1491)
- February 18 – Martin Luther, German religious reformer (b. 1483)
- March 1 – George Wishart, Scottish religious reformer (martyred) (b. 1513)
- March 26 – Thomas Elyot, English diplomat and scholar (b. c. 1490)
- April 7 – Friedrich Myconius, German Lutheran theologian (b. 1491)
- May 17 – Philipp von Hutten, German knight (b. 1511)
- May 29 – David Beaton, Scottish Catholic cardinal (b. c. 1494)
- July 4 – Khair ad Din "Barbarossa", corsair ruler of Algiers (b. 1475)
- July 9 – Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, Scottish statesman (b. c. 1493)
- July 16 – Anne Askew, English Protestant (burned at the stake) (b. 1521)
- August 1 – Peter Faber, French Jesuit theologian (b. 1506)
- August 3
- August 12 – Francisco de Vitoria, Renaissance theologian (b. 1492)
- November 1 – Giulio Romano, Italian painter (b. 1499)