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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1549 1550 1551 – 1552 – 1553 1554 1555|
|1552 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2305|
|English Regnal year||5 Edw. 6 – 6 Edw. 6|
— to —壬子年十二月十六日
|- Vikram Samvat||1608–1609|
|- Shaka Samvat||1474–1475|
|- Kali Yuga||4653–4654|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||552–553|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 21
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1552 MDLII|
|Minguo calendar||360 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2095|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1552|
- January 15 – Henry II of France and Maurice of Saxony sign the Treaty of Chambord.
- February 12 – Pedro de Valdivia founds the city of Valdivia as Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia in Chile.
- February 24 – The privileges of the Hanseatic League are abolished in England.
- March – The Act of Uniformity imposes the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in England.
- March 26 – Guru Amar Das becomes the Third Sikh Guru.
- April – War breaks out between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun.
- April 16 – Pedro de Valdivia founds the city of La Imperial, Chile.
- May – Maurice of Saxony captures Augsburg and almost seizes Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Innsbruck.
- July – In Hungary, Drégely Castle is attacked by the Turks.
- August 2
- September – In Hungary, Eger is defended against the Turks the captain of the castle was István Dobó.
- October 2 – The Khanate of Kazan falls to troops of Ivan IV of Russia.
Date unknown 
- In the Persian Gulf, the Ottoman Empire Red Sea Fleet attacks the Portuguese stronghold of Hormuz but fails to capture it.
- Spain's Bartolomé de Las Casas publishes his attack on colonial practices in the New World, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.
- In Italy, Bartolomeo Eustachi completes his Tabulae anatomicae, presenting his discoveries on the structure of the inner ear and heart, although, for fear of the Inquisition, it will not be published until 1714.
- King Edward VI of England founds 35 grammar schools by royal charter, including Shrewsbury; Leeds Grammar School is also established.
- February 1 – Edward Coke, English colonial entrepreneur and jurist (d. 1634)
- February 8 – Agrippa d'Aubigné, French poet and soldier (d. 1630)
- February 19 – Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman and cardinal (d. 1630)
- February 28 – Joost Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker and mathematician (d. 1632)
- June 18 – Gabriello Chiabrera, Italian poet (d. 1637)
- July 18 – Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1612)
- August 24 – Lavinia Fontana, Italian painter (d. 1614)
- September 22 – Tsar Vasili IV of Russia (d. 1612)
- October 6 – Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary to China (d. 1610)
- December 29 – Henri I de Bourbon, prince de Condé (d. 1588)
- December 30 – Simon Forman, English occultist and astrologer (d. 1611)
- date unknown
- Hans von Aachen, German mannerist painter (d. 1615)
- Thomas Aufield, English Catholic martyr (d. 1585)
- Jean Bertaut, French poet (d. 1611)
- Miguel de Benavides, Spanish clergyman and sinologist (d. 1605)
- Richard Hakluyt, English author, editor and translator (b. c. 1552 or 1553; d. 1616)
- Philemon Holland, English translator (d. 1637)
- Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma, Spanish politician (d. 1625)
- Dom Justo Takayama, Japanese daimyo (d. 1615)
- Jean Hotman, Marquis de Villers-St-Paul, French diplomat (d. 1636)
- Jack Ward, English pirate (d. 1622)
- January 10 – Johann Cochlaeus, German humanist and controversialist (b. 1479)
- January 22 – Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, English politician (b. 1509)
- February 26 – Heinrich Faber, German composer (b. 1500)
- April 18 – John Leland, English historian (b. 1502)
- May 26 – Sebastian Münster, German cartographer and cosmographer (b. 1488)
- June 10 – Alexander Barclay, British poet (b. 1476)
- July 9 – György Szondy Hungarian soldier.
- August 15 – Hermann of Wied, German Catholic archbishop (b. 1477)
- October 14 – Oswald Myconius, Swiss Protestant reformer (b. 1488)
- October 17 – Andreas Osiander, German Protestant theologian (b. 1498)
- December 2 – Francis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary (b. 1506)
- December 20 – Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther (b. 1499)