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This article is about the year 1553. For the number, see 1553 (number). For the serial data bus standard, see MIL-STD-1553.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1550 1551 1552 – 1553 – 1554 1555 1556|
|1553 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2306|
|Bahá'í calendar||−291 – −290|
|English Regnal year||6 Edw. 6 – 1 Mar. 1|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)
4249 or 4189
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4250 or 4190
|- Vikram Samvat||1609–1610|
|- Shaka Samvat||1475–1476|
|- Kali Yuga||4654–4655|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 22
|Minguo calendar||359 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2096|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1553.|
- May – The first Royal Charter is granted to St. Albans in England.
- June 26 – Christ's Hospital and King Edward's School, Witley, England, are created by Royal Charter.
- July 9 – Battle of Sievershausen: Prince-elector Maurice of Saxony defeats the Catholic forces of Margrave Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Maurice is mortally wounded.
- July 10 – Four days after the death of her cousin King Edward VI of England, Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England – a position she holds for the next nine days.
- July 18 – The Lord Mayor of London proclaims Mary I the rightful Queen; Lady Jane Grey voluntarily abdicates.
- July 19 – Queen Mary I of England begins her reign.
- August 3 – Queen Mary I of England arrives in London from East Anglia.
- August 22 – John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, a supporter of Lady Jane Grey, is executed.
- August – English explorer Richard Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Arkhangelsk, going on to the court of Ivan IV of Russia, opening up trade between England and Russia.
- September – Protestant bishops in England are arrested and Roman Catholic bishops are restored.
- September 23 – The Sadians consolidate their power in Morocco by defeating the last of their enemies.
- October 27 – Geneva's governing council burns Michael Servetus at the stake as a heretic.
- December 25 – Battle of Tucapel: Mapuche rebels under Lautaro defeat the Spanish conquistadors and execute Pedro de Valdivia, the first Royal Governor of Chile.
- Tonbridge School founded by Sir Andrew Judde under letters patent of Edward VI of England.
- Publication in London of The xiii Bukes of Eneados of the famose Poete Virgill, the first published complete translation of any major work of classical antiquity into one of the English languages.
- In Ming Dynasty China:
- January 22 – Mori Terumoto, Japanese warrior (d. 1625)
- May 7 – Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia (d. 1618)
- May 14 – Margaret of Valois, queen of Henry IV of France (d. 1615)
- July 15 – Archduke Ernest of Austria (d. 1595)
- October 8 – Jacques Auguste de Thou, French historian (d. 1617)
- October 18? – Luca Marenzio, Italian composer (d. 1599)
- November 23 – Prospero Alpini, Italian physician and botanist (d. 1617)
- December 13 – King Henry IV of France (d. 1610)
- date unknown
- Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Rus' (d. 1633)
- Giovanni Florio, English writer and translator (d. 1625)
- Robert Hues, English mathematician and geographer (d. 1632)
- Jasper Heywood, English translator of Seneca (d. 1598)
- Amago Katsuhisa, Japanese nobleman (d. 1578)
- Pierre de Rostegny, French jurist (d. 1631)
- William Russell, 1st Baron Russell of Thornhaugh, English military leader (d. 1613)
- February 19 – Erasmus Reinhold, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1511)
- February 25 – Hirate Masahide, Japanese diplomat and tutor of Oda Nobunaga (suicide) (b. 1492)
- April 9 – François Rabelais, French writer
- May 5 – Erasmus Alberus, German humanist (b. 1500)
- May 28 – Johannes Aal, Swiss theologian (b. 1500)
- July 6 – King Edward VI of England (b. 1537)
- July 9 – Maurice, Elector of Saxony (b. 1521)
- August 8 – Girolamo Fracastoro, Italian physician (b. 1478)
- August 22 – John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (b. 1502)
- September 26 – Juan de Homedes y Coscon, 47th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. c.1477)
- October 6 – Şehzade Mustafa, Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran Sultan (b. 1515)
- October 7 – Cristóbal de Morales, Spanish composer (b. 1500)
- October 16 – Lucas Cranach the Elder, German painter (b. 1472)
- October 27 – Michael Servetus, Spanish theologian (burned at the stake) (b. 1511)
- October 30 – Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck, German statesman and reformer (b. 1489)
- date unknown – George Joye English Protestant bible translator (b. c. 1495)