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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1551 1552 1553 – 1554 – 1555 1556 1557|
|1554 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2307|
|English Regnal year||1 Mar. 1 – 1 Ph. & M.|
— to —甲寅年十二月初八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1610–1611|
|- Shaka Samvat||1476–1477|
|- Kali Yuga||4655–4656|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||554–555|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 23
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1554 MDLIV|
|Minguo calendar||358 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2097|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1554|
- January 5 – A great fire breaks out in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
- January 25 – São Paulo, Brazil, is founded.
- February 9 – Thomas Wyatt surrenders to government forces in London.
- February 12 – After claiming the throne of England the previous year, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.
- March 17 – Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the Tower of London.
- April 12 – Mary of Guise becomes Regent of Scotland.
- July 23–July 25 – Queen Mary I of England marries King Philip of Naples, the only son of Emperor Charles V, in Winchester, England.
- August 2 – Battle of Marciano: Senese–French forces are defeated by the Florentine–Imperial army.
- August 12 – Battle of Renty: French forces led by Francis, Duke of Guise turn back an invasion of Picardy by Charles V.
Date unknown 
- Mikael Agricola becomes the bishop of Turku.
- Saadi conquer the Kingdom of Fez.
- English captain John Lok voyages to Guinea.
- January 9 – Pope Gregory XV (d. 1623)
- January 20 – King Sebastian of Portugal (d. 1578)
- March – Richard Hooker, Anglican theologian (d. 1600)
- March 26 – Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, French military leader (d. 1611)
- April – Stephen Gosson, English satirist (d. 1624)
- May 20 – Paolo Bellasio, Italian composer (d. 1594)
- July 5 – Elisabeth of Austria, Queen consort of France (d. 1592)
- October 3 – Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, English poet (d. 1628)
- November 30 – Sir Philip Sidney, English courtier and poet (d. 1586)
- December 19 – Philip William, Prince of Orange (d. 1618)
- date unknown
- January 1 – Pedro de Valdivia, Spanish conquistador (b. c. 1500)
- January 16 – Christiern Pedersen, Danish humanist (b. c. 1480)
- February 12
- February 21 – Hieronymus Bock, German botanist (b. 1498)
- February 23 – Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English politician (executed) (b. c.1515)
- March 3 – John Frederick, Elector of Saxony (b. 1503)
- April 11 – Thomas Wyatt the Younger, English rebel (executed) (b. 1521)
- August 25 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1473)
- September 22 – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, Spanish conquistador (b. c. 1510)
- December 22 – Alessandro Bonvicino, Italian painter (b. 1498)
- December – John Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln (b. 1503)
- date unknown
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 150–153. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Kerr, Robert (1824). A general history and collection of voyages and travels 7. Edinburgh: Blackwood. p. 229. Retrieved 2011-11-27.