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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1552 1553 1554 – 1555 – 1556 1557 1558|
|1555 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2308|
|English Regnal year||1 Ph. & M. – 2 Ph. & M.|
— to —乙卯年閏十一月十八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1611–1612|
|- Shaka Samvat||1477–1478|
|- Kali Yuga||4656–4657|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||555–556|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 24Kōji 1
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1555 MDLV|
|Minguo calendar||357 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2098|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1555|
- January 22 – Fall of the Ava Kingdom in Upper Burma.
- February 2 – The Diet of Augsburg begins.
- February 4 – John Rogers, burned at the stake in London, becomes the first Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.
- February 8 – Laurence Saunders becomes the second Marian Protestant martyr in England, being led barefoot to his execution by burning at the stake.
- February 9 – Rowland Taylor, Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk, and John Hooper, deposed Bishop of Gloucester, are burned at the stake in England.
- April 10 – Pope Marcellus II succeeds Julius III as the 222nd pope. He will reign for 22 days.
- April 17 – After 18 months of siege, the Republic of Siena surrenders to the Florentine–Imperial army.
- May 23 – Pope Paul IV succeeds Marcellus II as the 223rd pope.
- June 1 – Treaty of Amasya between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia concludes the Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555).
- July 12 – Pope Paul IV creates the first Jewish ghetto in Rome.
- September 25 – The Peace of Augsburg is signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League establishing the principle Cuius regio, eius religio, that is, rulers within the Empire can choose the religion of their realm.
- October 16 – Two of the Oxford Martyrs, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, are burned at the stake in England.
- October 25 – Charles V abdicates as Holy Roman Emperor and is succeeded by his brother Ferdinand.
Date unknown 
- Russia breaks a 60-year-old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland.
- Humayun resumes rule of the Mughal Empire.
- Bairam Khan defeats Hindu forces at Panipat.
- Collapse of the Adal Sultanate in the Horn of Africa.
- The Muscovy Company is chartered in England to trade with Muscovy and Richard Chancellor negotiates with the Tsar.
- Richard Eden publishes The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India, a translation into English of parts of Pietro Martire d'Anghiera's De orbe novo decades, Gonzalo Oviedo's Natural hystoria de las Indias and others including the first recorded use in English of the country name 'China'.
- "Negro" – the Spanish term for "black person" – is coined.
- Gresham's School is founded by Sir John Gresham in England.
- William Annyas becomes the Mayor of Youghal in Ireland, the first Jew to hold such a position in Ireland.
- John Dee is charged, but cleared, of treason in England.
- Orlande de Lassus' first book of madrigals is published, in Antwerp.
- March 18 – François, Duke of Anjou, youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici (d. 1584)
- April 21 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1619)
- June 11 – Lodovico Zacconi, Italian composer and music theorist (d. 1627)
- August 1 – Edward Kelley, English spirit medium (d. 1597)
- September 28 – Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, duc de Bouillon, Marshal of France (d. 1623)
- December 4 – Heinrich Meibom, German historian and poet (d. 1625)
- December 27 – Johann Arndt, German Lutheran theologian (d. 1621)
- date unknown
- Richard Carew, Cornish translator and antiquary (d. 1620)
- Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski, Polish nobleman (d. 1628)
- Samuel Eidels, Rabbi and Talmudist (d. 1631)
- Joshua Falk, Rabbi and commentator (d. 1614)
- Henry Garnet, English Jesuit (d. 1606)
- Lancelot Andrewes, English clergyman and scholar (d. 1626)
- François de Malherbe, French poet (d. 1628)
- Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński, Polish nobleman (d. 1628)
- Okudaira Sadamasa, Japanese nobleman (d. 1615)
- Konishi Yukinaga, Japanese Christian daimyo (d. 1600)
- January 14 – Jacques Dubois, French anatomist (b. 1478)
- February 4 – John Rogers, English clergyman (burned at the stake) (b. c. 1500)
- February 8 – Laurence Saunders, English clergyman (burned at the stake)
- February 9
- March 14 – John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford (b. 1485)
- March 23 – Pope Julius III (b. 1487)
- April 12 – Joanna of Castile, queen of Philip I of Castile (b. 1479)
- April 18 – Polydore Vergil, English historian (b. 1470)
- April 30 – Pope Marcellus II (b. 1501)
- May 25
- August 25 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (b. 1473)
- September 8 – Saint Thomas of Villanueva, Spanish bishop (b. 1488)
- October 5 – Edward Wotton, English zoologist (b. 1492)
- October 9 – Justus Jonas, German Protestant reformer (b. 1493)
- October 16
- October 25 – Olympia Fulvia Morata, Italian classical scholar (b. 1526)
- November 12 – Stephen Gardiner, English bishop and Lord Chancellor (b. 1493)
- November 21 – Georg Agricola, German scientist (b. 1490)
- December – Stanisław Kostka, Polish noble (b. 1487)
- Hadfield, Andrew (2004). "Eden, Richard (c.1520–1576)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8454. Retrieved 2011-12-12. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Ireland. Dept. of Foreign Affairs (1987). Ireland today. Information Section, Dept. of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 9 June 2012.