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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1557 1558 1559 – 1560 – 1561 1562 1563|
|1560 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2313|
|English Regnal year||2 Eliz. 1 – 3 Eliz. 1|
— to —庚申年十二月十五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1616–1617|
|- Shaka Samvat||1482–1483|
|- Kali Yuga||4661–4662|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||560–561|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 3
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1560 MDLX|
|Minguo calendar||352 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2103|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1560|
- February 27 – Treaty of Berwick: Terms agreed with the Lords of the Congregation in the Kingdom of Scotland for forces of the Kingdom of England to enter Scotland to expel French troops defending the Regency of Mary of Guise.
- March 7 – A Spanish-led expedition, commanded by Juan de la Cerda, 4th Duke of Medinaceli, overruns the Tunisian island of Djerba.
- March 17 – Leaders of the Amboise conspiracy, including Godefroy de Barry, seigneur de La Renaudie, make an unsuccessful attempt to storm the château of Amboise, where the young French king and queen are residing. La Renaudie is subsequently caught and executed, along with over a thousand of his followers.
- April 15 – Denmark buys the Estonian island of Saaremaa from its last prince bishop.
- May 11 – At the Battle of Djerba, the Ottoman fleet, commanded by under Piyale Pasha, overwhelms a large joint European (mainly Spanish) fleet, sinking about half its ships.
- June 12 – Battle of Okehazama: Oda Nobunaga defeats Imagawa Yoshimoto.
- July 6 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed between England, France and Scotland. The French withdraw from Scotland. This largely ends the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland, and ends the wars between England and its northern neighbour.
- August 2 – Livonian War: Russians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in the Battle of Ergeme, precipitating the dissolution of the order.
- August 17 – The Roman Church is overthrown and Protestantism is established as the national religion in Scotland.
- August 21 – A total eclipse of the sun is observable in Europe.
- September 29 – Eric XIV becomes king of Sweden upon the death of his father Gustav Vasa.
- December 5 – Seventeen-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, is widowed by the death of her first husband, King Francis II of France. Her mother-in-law, Catherine de' Medici, becomes regent of France.
- December 6 – Charles IX (of France) succeeds his elder brother, Francis II, at the age of ten.
Date unknown 
- Publication of the complete Geneva Bible.
- The first tulip bulb is brought from Turkey to the Netherlands (probable date).
- The first scientific society, the Academia Secretorum Naturae, is founded in Naples by Giambattista della Porta.
- Solihull School is founded in the West Midlands of England.
- The oldest surviving violin (dated inside), known as the Charles IX, is made in Cremona, in northern Italy.
- Bairam Khan loses power in the Mughal Empire.
- Mongols invade and occupy Qinghai.
- The great age of piracy in the Caribbean starts around this time.
- January 17 – Gaspard Bauhin, Swiss botanist (d. 1624)
- June 25 – Wilhelm Fabry, German surgeon (d. 1634)
- August 7 – Elizabeth Báthory, Hungarian serial killer (d. 1614)
- August 10 – Hieronymus Praetorius, German composer (d. 1629)
- September 11 – Krystyna Radziwiłł, Polish noblewoman (d. 1580)
- October 10 – Jacobus Arminius, Dutch theologian (d. 1609)
- November 3 – Annibale Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1609)
- December 3 – Jan Gruter, Dutch critic and scholar (d. 1627)
- date unknown
- Felice Anerio, Italian composer (died 1614)
- Charles Butler, English beekeeper and philologist (d. 1647)
- James Crichton, Scottish scholar (d. 1582)
- Lieven de Key, Dutch architect (d. 1627)
- Ishida Mitsunari, Japanese samurai (d. 1600)
- Katarzyna Ostrogska, Polish noblewoman (d. 1579)
- Anton Praetorius, German pastor (d. 1613)
- January 1 – Joachim du Bellay, French poet (b. c. 1522)
- January 8 – Jan Łaski, Polish Protestant evangelical reformer (b. 1499)
- February 7 – Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Florentine sculptor (b. 1493)
- February 16 – Jean du Bellay, French cardinal and diplomat (b. c. 1493)
- April 19 – Philipp Melanchthon, German humanist and reformer (b. 1497)
- June 11 – Mary of Guise, queen of James V of Scotland and regent (b. 1515)
- June 12 – Imagawa Yoshimoto, Japanese daimyo (b. 1519)
- June 12 – Ii Naomori, Japanese warrior (b. 1506)
- August 4 – Maeda Toshimasa, Japanese samurai
- August 7 – Anastasia Romanovna, wife of Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible (b. 1530)
- September 8 – Amy Robsart, English noblewoman (b. 1536)
- September 29 – King Gustav I of Sweden (b. 1496)
- September 30 – Melchior Cano, Spanish theologian (b. 1525)
- November 25 – Andrea Doria, Italian naval commander (b. 1466)
- December 5 – King Francis II of France (b. 1544)
- Bergin, Thomas G., ed. (1987). Encyclopedia of the Renaissance. Oxford; New York: New Market Books.