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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1561 1562 1563 – 1564 – 1565 1566 1567|
|1564 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2317|
|English Regnal year||6 Eliz. 1 – 7 Eliz. 1|
— to —甲子年十一月廿八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1620–1621|
|- Shaka Samvat||1486–1487|
|- Kali Yuga||4665–4666|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||564–565|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 7
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1564 MDLXIV|
|Minguo calendar||348 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2107|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1564|
- March 25 – Battle of Angol in Chile: Spanish Conquistador Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado defeats and kills the toqui Illangulién.
- June 22 – French settlers abandon Charlesfort, the first French attempt at colonizing what is now the United States, and establish Fort Caroline in Florida.
- September 10 – Battle of Kawanakajima in Japan: Takeda Shingen fights the forces of Uesugi Kenshin for the final time.
- November 21 – Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi sails from Mexico. Later, he will conquer the Philippine Islands, founding Manila.
Date unknown 
- First recorded report of a 'rat king'.
- approx. date – Idris Alooma starts to rule the Kanem-Bornu Empire.
- February 15 – Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer and physicist (d. 1642)
- February 26 (baptized) – Christopher Marlowe, English poet and dramatist (d. 1593)
- March 9 – David Fabricius, Frisian astronomer (d.
- April 26 (baptized) – William Shakespeare, English poet and dramatist. Believed to be born on April 23 (d. 1616)
- April 27 – Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (d. 1632)
- September 24 – William Adams, English navigator and samurai (d. 1620)
- November – Francisco Pacheco, Spanish painter (d. 1654)
- November 22 – Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, English peer and traitor (d. 1619)
- date unknown
- William Bathe, Jesuit priest (d. 1614)
- Daniel Chamier, minister of religion in France (d. 1621)
- Kryštof Harant z Polžic a Bezdružic, Bohemian composer and Protestant rebel (d. 1621)
- Paul Miki, Japanese Catholic saint and martyr (d. 1597)
- Thomas Morton, English churchman (d. 1659)
- Pedro Páez, Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia (d. 1622)
- Thomas Shirley, English pirate (d. 1620)
- January 4 – Hosokawa Ujitsuna, Japanese military commander (b. 1514)
- February 18 – Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italian artist, architect and sculptor (b. 1475)
- February 19 – Guillaume Morel, French classical scholar (b. 1505)
- April – Pierre Belon, French naturalist (b. 1517) (murdered)
- May 2 – Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Italian humanist (b. 1500)
- May 27 – John Calvin, French Protestant reformer (b. 1509)
- July 25 – Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1503)
- July 31 – Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of New Spain (b. 1511)
- October 5 – Pierre de Manchicourt, Flemish composer
- October 15 – Vesalius, Flemish anatomist (b. 1514)
- October 18 – Johannes Acronius Frisius, German physician and mathematician (b. 1520)
- date unknown
- probable – Maurice Scève, French poet (b. 1500)