|Discovered by||Walter Baade|
|Discovery date||June 27, 1949|
|Epoch August 27, 2011 (JD 2455800.5)|
|1.1191234523 a (408.7598409 d)|
|2 ? g/cm³|
|0.000 39 m/s²|
|0.000 74 km/s|
|0.094 71 d|
1566 Icarus (// IK-ə-rəs) is an Apollo asteroid (a subclass of near-Earth asteroid) that at perihelion comes closer to the Sun than Mercury, i.e. it is a Mercury-crossing asteroid. It is also a Venus and Mars-crosser. It is named after Icarus of Greek mythology, who flew too close to the Sun. It was discovered in 1949 by Walter Baade. From 1949 until the discovery of 2000 BD19 in 2000, it was known as the asteroid that passed closest to the Sun.
Icarus makes close approaches to Earth, in the month of June, at gaps of 9, 19, or 28 years. Rarely, it comes as close as 6.4 Gm (16 lunar distances, about 4 million miles), as it did on June 14, 1968. During this approach, Icarus became the first minor planet to be observed using radar, with measurements being performed from the Goldstone Tracking Station. As of 2012, the last close approach was in 1996, at 15.1 Gm, almost 40 times as far as the Moon. The next close approach will be June 16, 2015, at 0.05383 AU (8,053,000 km; 5,004,000 mi).
"Project Icarus" was conducted in the spring of 1967. It was an assignment by Professor Paul Sandorff for his group of Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate students in a systems engineering class to design a way to deflect or destroy 1566 Icarus in the case that it was found to be on a collision course with planet Earth, using rockets. Time magazine ran an article on the endeavor in June 1967 and the following year the student report was published as a book.
In the course of their study the students visited the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, where they were so impressed with the Vertical Assembly Building that they wrote of "the awesome reality" that had "completely erased" their doubts over using the technology associated with the Apollo program and Saturn rockets.
- "1566 Icarus (1949 MA)". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 2001566. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Veeder, G. J.; et al. (1989). "Radiometry of near-earth asteroids". The Astronomical Journal 97 (4): 1211–9. Bibcode:1989AJ.....97.1211V. doi:10.1086/115064. PMID 11538320.
- Goldstein, R. M. (1968). "Radar Observations of Icarus". Science 162 (3856): 903–4. Bibcode:1968Sci...162..903G. doi:10.1126/science.162.3856.903. PMID 17769079.
- "JPL Close-Approach Data: 1566 Icarus (1949 MA)" (last observation: 2014-06-24; arc: 64.99 years). Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- Kleiman, Louis A., Project Icarus: an MIT Student Project in Systems Engineering, Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press, 1968
- "Systems Engineering: Avoiding an Asteroid", Time magazine, June 16, 1967.
- Day, Dwayne A., "Giant bombs on giant rockets: Project Icarus", The Space Review, Monday, July 5, 2004.
- Project Icarus, MIT Report No. 13, MIT Press 1968, edited by Louis A. Kleiman. "Interdepartmental Student Project in Systems Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Spring Term, 1967"; reissued 1979.
- David S. F. Portree. "MIT Saves the World: Project Icarus (1967)". Wired Science. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "MIT Course precept for movie", The Tech, MIT, October 30, 1979
- NeoDys Object Listing: orbital elements and list of close approaches
- Article on TheSpaceReview.com about Project Icarus