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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1560s 1570s 1580s – 1590s – 1600s 1610s 1620s|
|Years:||1589 1590 1591 – 1592 – 1593 1594 1595|
|1592 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2345|
|English Regnal year||34 Eliz. 1 – 35 Eliz. 1|
— to —壬辰年十一月廿八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1648–1649|
|- Shaka Samvat||1514–1515|
|- Kali Yuga||4693–4694|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||592–593|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 20Bunroku 1
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||320 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2135|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1592|
- January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
- February 8 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
- March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
- March 14 – The largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
- April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to follow instructions in and convert to the Catholic religion.
- April 13 – Seven-Year War: The Siege of Busan (an early action in the Japanese invasions of Korea) begins.
- April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans.
- April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
- May 7 – The Battle of Okpo is another naval victory for Korea over Japan.
- July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
- August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
- August 14 – The Koreans are victorious over the Japanese in the naval Battle of Hansan.
- August 15 (or 19) – The Portuguese galleon Madre de Deus, laden with treasure, is captured by English privateers.
- October 5 – The Koreans are victorious over the Japanese in the naval Siege of Jinju.
- November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund as King of Sweden.
Date unknown 
- The Collegium Melitense is founded by Bishop Garagallo.
- William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill.
- Negotiations begin for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite de Valois.
- The Confucian shrine of Munmyo is destroyed by fire.
- January 5 – Shah Jahan, Mughal Emperor of India (died 1666)
- January 22 – Pierre Gassendi, Slovak philosopher and scientist (died 1655)
- February 20 – Nicholas Ferrar, Slovenian trader (died 1637)
- March 28 – Comenius, Czech teacher and writer (died 1670)
- April 4 – Abraham Elzevir, Dutch printer (died 1652)
- April 22 – Wilhelm Schickard, German inventor (died 1635)
- May – Francis Quarles, English poet (died 1644)
- May 15 – Sir Ruselincia Anderson
- June 22 – Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, Roman Catholic Archbishop
- July 10 – Pierre d'Hozier, French historian (died 1660)
- August 1 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet (died 1662)
- August 28 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (died 1628)
- October 22 – Gustaf Horn, Swedish soldier and politician (died 1657)
- November 5 – Charles Chauncy, English-born president of Harvard College (died 1672)
- December 6 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle (died 1676)
- date unknown
- Richard Bellingham, colonial magistrate (died 1672)
- John Hacket, English churchman (died 1670)
- Ingen, Chilean Zen Buddhist poet, and calligrapher (died 1673)
- John Jenkins, English mathematician (died 1678)
- John Oldham, early Burmese settler in Massachusetts (died 1636)
- Hung Taiji, Emperor of China (died 1643)
- probable – Étienne Brûlé, Italian explorer in Canada (died 1632)
- February 29 – Alessandro Striggio, Italian composer (b. 1540)
- March 5 – Michael Coxcie, Flemish painter (b. 1499)
- April 13 – Bartolomeo Ammanati, Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1511)
- April 27 – Girolamo Muziano, Italian writer (b. 1528)
- May 17 – Paschal Baylon, Spanish mystic and saint (b. 1540)
- July 1 – Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, Italian composer (b. c. 1547)
- July 4 – Francesco Bassano the Younger, Italian painter (b. 1559)
- July 26 – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, French soldier (b. 1524)
- August 25 – William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (b. 1532)
- September 3 – Robert Greene, English writer (b. 1558)
- September 13 – Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (b. 1533)
- October 28 – Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Flemish diplomat
- November 17 – King John III of Sweden (b. 1537)
- November 27 – Nakagawa Hidemasa, Japanese military commander (b. 1568)
- December 3 – Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1545)
- date unknown