15 kV AC railway electrification

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A pylon of a single phase AC 110 kV-powerline near Bartholomä in Germany. Lines of these type are used in Germany to supply electric railways with single phase AC at 16.7 hertz. In the substations of the railway, transformers are used to step it down to 15 kV.

The 15 kV, 16.7 Hz AC railway electrification system is used in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway. The high voltage enables high power transmission with low losses powering traction motors available since the beginning of the 20th century. Railway electrification in late 20th century tended to use 25 kV, 50 Hz AC systems which has become the preferred standard for new railway electrifications but extensions of the existing 15 kV networks are not completely unlikely.

Due to high conversion costs and little advantages it is unlikely that existing 15 kV, 16.7 Hz systems will be converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz.

History[edit]

The first electrified railways used series-wound DC motors, first at 600 V and then 1,500 V. Areas with 3 kV DC catenaries (primarily in Eastern Europe) used two 1,500 V DC motors in series. But even at 3 kV, the current needed to power a heavy train (particularly in rural and mountainous areas) can be excessive. Although increasing the transmission voltage decreases the current and associated resistive losses for a given power, insulation limits make higher voltage traction motors impractical. Transformers on each locomotive are thus required to step high transmission voltages down to practical motor operating voltages. Because transformers require alternating current (AC), high voltage electrified railways adopted AC along with the electric power distribution system (see War of Currents).

The 50 Hz (60 Hz in North America) AC grid was already established at the beginning of the 20th century. Although series-wound motors can in principle run on AC as well as DC (the reason they are also known as universal motors) large series-wound traction motors had problems with such high frequencies. High inductive reactance of the motor windings caused commutator flashover problems and the non-laminated magnetic pole-pieces originally designed for DC exhibited excessive eddy current losses. Using a lower AC frequency alleviated both problems.

In the German-speaking countries, high-voltage electrification began at 16⅔ hertz, exactly one third of the national power grid frequency of 50 Hz. This facilitated the operation of rotary converters from the grid frequency and allowed dedicated railway power generators to operate at the same shaft speed as a standard 50 Hz generator by reducing the number of poles by a factor of three. For example, a generator turning at 1,000 rpm would be wound with two poles rather than six.

Separate plants supply railway power in Austria, Switzerland and Germany, except for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony-Anhalt; converters powered by the grid supply railway power in those two German states plus Sweden and Norway. Norway also has two hydro-electric power plants dedicated for railway power with 16⅔ hertz output.

The first generators were synchronous AC generators or synchronous transformers; however, with the introduction of modern double fed induction generators, the control current induced an undesired DC component, leading to pole overheating problems. This was solved by shifting the frequency slightly away from exactly ⅓ the grid frequency; 16.7 hertz was arbitrarily chosen to remain within the tolerance of existing traction motors. Austria, Switzerland and Southern Germany switched their power plants to 16.7 Hz on 16 October 1995 at 12:00 CET.[1][2] Note that regional electrified sections run by synchronous generators keep their frequency of 16⅔ Hz just as Sweden and Norway still run their railway networks at 16⅔ Hz throughout.

One of the disadvantages of 16.7 Hz locomotives as compared to 50 Hz or 60 Hz locomotives is the heavier transformer required to reduce the overhead line voltage to that used by the motors and their speed control gear. Low frequency transformers need to have heavier magnetic cores and larger windings for the same level of power conversion. (See effect of frequency on the design of transformers.) The heavier transformers also lead to higher axle loads than for those of a higher frequency. This, in turn, leads to increased track wear and increases the need for more frequent track maintenance. The Czech Railways encountered the problem of the reduced power handling of lower frequency transformers when they rebuilt some 25 kV AC, 50 Hz locomotives (series 340) to operate on 15 kV AC, 16.7 Hz lines. As a result of using the same transformer cores (originally designed for 50 Hz) at the lower frequency, the transformers had to be de-rated to one third of their original power handling capability, thereby reducing the available tractive effort by the same amount (to around 1,000 kW).[clarification needed]

These drawbacks, plus the need for a separate supply infrastructure and the lack of any technical advantages with modern motors and controllers has limited the use of 16⅔ Hz and 16.7 Hz beyond the original five countries. Most other countries electrified their railways at the utility frequency of 50/60 Hz. Newer European electrification is mostly 25 kV AC at 50 Hz (primarily in Eastern Europe). Conversion to this voltage/frequency requires higher voltage insulators and greater clearance between lines and bridges and other structures. This is now standard for new overhead lines as well as for modernizing old installations.

Simple European standardization with an alignment of voltage/frequency across Europe is not necessarily cost-effective since trans-border transport is more limited by the differing national standards in other areas. To equip an electric locomotive with a transformer for two or more input voltages is cheap compared to the cost of installing multiple train protection systems[citation needed] and to run them through the approval procedure to get access to the railway network in other countries. However, some new high-speed lines to neighbouring countries are already intended to be built to 25 kV (e.g. in Austria to Eastern Europe). Newer locomotives are always built with asynchronous motor control systems that have no problem with a range of input frequencies including DC. However the Deutsche Bahn train operator does still use older models from the standard electric locomotive series - even though some are now as much as 50 years old. As soon as these obsolescent models are decommissioned, it will be easier to standardise, but this may take a few decades to happen. Meanwhile, the Deutsche Bahn tends to order train sets that are capable of running multiple electrification systems.

Distribution networks[edit]

In Germany (except Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony-Anhalt), Austria and Switzerland, there is a separate single-phase power distribution grid for railway power at 16.7 Hz; the voltage is 110 kV in Germany and Austria and 132 kV in Switzerland. This system is called the centralized railway energy supply.

In Sweden, Norway, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony-Anhalt, the power is taken directly from the three-phase grid (110 kV at 50 Hz), converted to low frequency single phase and fed into the overhead line. This system is called the decentralized (i.e. local) railway energy supply.

Generation and conversion[edit]

The centralized system is supplied by special power plants that generate 110 kV (or 132 kV in the Swiss system) AC at 16.7 Hz and by rotary converters or AC/AC converters that are supplied from the national power grid (e.g. 110 kV, 50 Hz), they convert it to 55-0-55 kV (or 66-0-66 kV) AC at 16.7 Hz. The 0 V point is connected to earth through an inductance so that each conductor of the single phase AC power line has a voltage of 55 kV (or 66 kV) with respect to earth potential. This is similar to split-phase electric power systems and results in a balanced line transmission. The inductance through which the earthing is done is designed to limit earth currents in cases of faults on the line. At the transformer substations, the voltage is transformed from 110 kV (or 132 kV) AC to 15 kV AC and the energy is fed into the overhead line.

Asynchronous converters[edit]

The frequency of 16.7 Hz depends on the necessity to avoid synchronism in parts of the rotary machine, which consists principally of a three phase asynchronous motor and a single phase synchronous generator. Since synchronism sets in at a frequency of 16⅔ Hz (according to the technical details) in the single phase system, the frequency of the centralized system was set to 16.7 Hz.

Power plants providing 110 kV, 16.7 Hz, are either dedicated to generating this specific single phase AC or have special generators for the purpose, such as the Neckarwestheim nuclear power plant or the Walchensee hydroelectric power station.

Synchronous converters[edit]

The power for the decentralized system is taken directly from the national power grid and directly transformed and converted into 15 kV, 16⅔ Hz by synchronous-synchronous-converters or static converters. Both systems need additional transformers. The converters consist of a three-phase synchronous motor and a single-phase synchronous generator. The decentralized system in the north-east of Germany was established by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the 1980s, because there was no centralized system available in these areas.

Facilities for 15 kV AC railway electrification in Germany, Austria and Switzerland[edit]

Germany, Austria and Switzerland operate the largest interconnected 15 kV AC system with central generation, and central and local converter plants.

Germany[edit]

Substations[edit]

In these facilities electricity is transformed down from 110 kV-level of DB to 15 kV. There is no conversion or generation of power.

Facility Coordinates
Aalen 48°49′20″N 10°02′31″E / 48.82222°N 10.04194°E / 48.82222; 10.04194 (Unterwerk Aalen)
Adelsheim 49°24′57″N 9°24′17″E / 49.41583°N 9.40472°E / 49.41583; 9.40472 (Unterwerk Adelsheim)
Almstedt 52°01′53″N 9°56′26″E / 52.03139°N 9.94056°E / 52.03139; 9.94056 (Unterwerk Almstedt)
Amstetten 48°34′08″N 9°52′37″E / 48.56889°N 9.87694°E / 48.56889; 9.87694 (Unterwerk Amstetten)
Appenweier 48°32′37″N 7°58′23″E / 48.54361°N 7.97306°E / 48.54361; 7.97306 (Unterwerk Appenweier)
Aschaffenburg 49°59′08″N 9°05′33″E / 49.98556°N 9.09250°E / 49.98556; 9.09250 (Unterwerk Aschaffenburg)
Aubing 48°09′08″N 11°26′40″E / 48.15222°N 11.44444°E / 48.15222; 11.44444 (Unterwerk Aubing)
Augsburg 48°23′54″N 10°52′0″E / 48.39833°N 10.86667°E / 48.39833; 10.86667 (Unterwerk Augsburg)
Bachstedt (planned) 51°03′18″N 11°11′32″E / 51.05500°N 11.19222°E / 51.05500; 11.19222 (Unterwerk Bachstedt (planned))
Baden-Baden 48°44′03″N 8°08′49″E / 48.73417°N 8.14694°E / 48.73417; 8.14694 (Unterwerk Baden-Baden)
Bad Reichenhall 47°44′51″N 12°54′09″E / 47.74750°N 12.90250°E / 47.74750; 12.90250 (Unterwerk Bad Reichenhall)
Barnstorf 52°42′26″N 8°30′40″E / 52.70722°N 8.51111°E / 52.70722; 8.51111 (Unterwerk Barnsdorf)
Bebra 50°58′32″N 9°47′23″E / 50.97556°N 9.78972°E / 50.97556; 9.78972 (Unterwerk Bebra)
Bengel 50°0′34″N 7°03′23″E / 50.00944°N 7.05639°E / 50.00944; 7.05639 (Unterwerk Bengel)
Berlin-Schönefeld 52°23′39″N 13°31′03″E / 52.39417°N 13.51750°E / 52.39417; 13.51750 (Unterwerk Berlin-Schönefeld)
Biblis 49°41′03″N 8°26′39″E / 49.68417°N 8.44417°E / 49.68417; 8.44417 (Unterwerk Biblis)
Bingen 49°57′16″N 7°56′54″E / 49.95444°N 7.94833°E / 49.95444; 7.94833 (Unterwerk Bingen)
Böhla 51°14′08″N 13°32′44″E / 51.23556°N 13.54556°E / 51.23556; 13.54556 (Unterwerk Böhla)
Boizenburg 53°23′29″N 10°43′58″E / 53.39139°N 10.73278°E / 53.39139; 10.73278 (Unterwerk Boizenburg)
Borken ( part of converter) 51°03′07″N 9°17′01″E / 51.05194°N 9.28361°E / 51.05194; 9.28361 (Unterwerk Borken ( part of converter))
Borne 52°06′40″N 12°32′28″E / 52.11111°N 12.54111°E / 52.11111; 12.54111 (Unterwerk Borne)
Braunschweig 52°16′09″N 10°38′24″E / 52.26917°N 10.64000°E / 52.26917; 10.64000 (Unterwerk Braunschweig)
Buchholz 53°19′20″N 9°51′44″E / 53.32222°N 9.86222°E / 53.32222; 9.86222 (Unterwerk Buchholz)
Burgdorf 47°03′44″N 7°36′41″E / 47.06222°N 7.61139°E / 47.06222; 7.61139 (Unterwerk Burgdorf)
Burgweinting 48°58′53″N 12°09′13″E / 48.98139°N 12.15361°E / 48.98139; 12.15361 (Unterwerk Burgweinting)
Chemnitz ( part of converter) 50°51′44″N 12°56′21″E / 50.86222°N 12.93917°E / 50.86222; 12.93917 (Chemnitz ( part of converter))
Datteln 51°37′43″N 7°20′03″E / 51.62861°N 7.33417°E / 51.62861; 7.33417 (Unterwerk Datteln)
Denkendorf 48°56′19″N 11°27′19″E / 48.93861°N 11.45528°E / 48.93861; 11.45528 (Unterwerk Denkendorf)
Donauwörth 48°42′58″N 10°45′43″E / 48.71611°N 10.76194°E / 48.71611; 10.76194 (Unterwerk Donauwörth)
Dörstewitz (planned) 51°23′35″N 11°54′16″E / 51.39306°N 11.90444°E / 51.39306; 11.90444 (Unterwerk Dörstewitz (planned))
Dortmund 51°30′38″N 7°24′03″E / 51.51056°N 7.40083°E / 51.51056; 7.40083 (Unterwerk Dortmund)
Dortmund-Scharnhorst 51°32′14″N 7°31′56″E / 51.53722°N 7.53222°E / 51.53722; 7.53222 (Unterwerk Dortmund-Scharnhorst)
Dresden ( part of converter) 50°59′40″N 13°50′06″E / 50.99444°N 13.83500°E / 50.99444; 13.83500 (Unterwerk Dresden ( part of converter))
Duisburg 51°24′45″N 6°47′33″E / 51.41250°N 6.79250°E / 51.41250; 6.79250 (Unterwerk Duisburg)
Düsseldorf 51°13′18″N 6°50′11″E / 51.22167°N 6.83639°E / 51.22167; 6.83639 (Unterwerk Düsseldorf)
Ebensfeld 50°05′0″N 10°57′41″E / 50.08333°N 10.96139°E / 50.08333; 10.96139 (Unterwerk Ebensfeld)
Eggolsheim 49°45′10″N 11°03′27″E / 49.75278°N 11.05750°E / 49.75278; 11.05750 (Unterwerk Eggolsheim)
Eichenberg 51°22′34″N 9°55′31″E / 51.37611°N 9.92528°E / 51.37611; 9.92528 (Unterwerk Eichenberg)
Eilenburg 51°26′48″N 12°37′08″E / 51.44667°N 12.61889°E / 51.44667; 12.61889 (Unterwerk Eilenburg)
Eischleben (planned) 50°53′02″N 10°58′55″E / 50.88389°N 10.98194°E / 50.88389; 10.98194 (Unterwerk Eischleben (planned))
Eisenach 50°57′51″N 10°22′19″E / 50.96417°N 10.37194°E / 50.96417; 10.37194 (Unterwerk Eisenach)
Elmshorn 53°45′45″N 9°39′17″E / 53.76250°N 9.65472°E / 53.76250; 9.65472 (Unterwerk Elmshorn)
Elsfleth 53°16′52″N 8°28′26″E / 53.28111°N 8.47389°E / 53.28111; 8.47389 (Unterwerk Elsfleth)
Emden 53°21′30″N 7°13′11″E / 53.35833°N 7.21972°E / 53.35833; 7.21972 (Unterwerk Emden)
Emskirchen 49°33′30″N 10°41′43″E / 49.55833°N 10.69528°E / 49.55833; 10.69528 (Unterwerk Emskirchen)
Essen 51°27′24″N 7°01′39″E / 51.45667°N 7.02750°E / 51.45667; 7.02750 (Unterwerk Essen)
Eutingen 48°28′47″N 8°46′44″E / 48.47972°N 8.77889°E / 48.47972; 8.77889 (Unterwerk Eutingen)
Eystrup 52°47′32″N 9°13′45″E / 52.79222°N 9.22917°E / 52.79222; 9.22917 (Unterwerk Eystrup)
Fallersleben 52°25′16″N 10°40′30″E / 52.42111°N 10.67500°E / 52.42111; 10.67500 (Unterwerk Fallersleben)
Finnentrop 51°10′03″N 7°58′01″E / 51.16750°N 7.96694°E / 51.16750; 7.96694 (Unterwerk Finnentrop)
Flieden 50°25′08″N 9°34′18″E / 50.41889°N 9.57167°E / 50.41889; 9.57167 (Unterwerk Fliedern)
Flörsheim 50°0′17″N 8°24′54″E / 50.00472°N 8.41500°E / 50.00472; 8.41500 (Unterwerk Flörsheim)
Freiburg 47°58′52″N 7°49′41″E / 47.98111°N 7.82806°E / 47.98111; 7.82806 (Unterwerk Freiburg)
Friedberg 50°19′28″N 8°46′25″E / 50.32444°N 8.77361°E / 50.32444; 8.77361 (Unterwerk Friedberg)
Fronhausen 50°41′55″N 8°41′53″E / 50.69861°N 8.69806°E / 50.69861; 8.69806 (Unterwerk Fronhausen)
Fulda 50°32′40″N 9°41′28″E / 50.54444°N 9.69111°E / 50.54444; 9.69111 (Unterwerk Fulda)
Gabelbach 48°22′45″N 10°33′35″E / 48.37917°N 10.55972°E / 48.37917; 10.55972 (Unterwerk Gabelbach)
Garssen 52°40′30″N 10°07′44″E / 52.67500°N 10.12889°E / 52.67500; 10.12889 (Unterwerk Garssen)
Geisenbrunn 48°06′29″N 11°19′51″E / 48.10806°N 11.33083°E / 48.10806; 11.33083 (Unterwerk Geisenbrunn)
Geltendorf 48°06′21″N 11°01′48″E / 48.10583°N 11.03000°E / 48.10583; 11.03000 (Unterwerk Geltendorf)
Gemünden 50°03′35″N 9°40′38″E / 50.05972°N 9.67722°E / 50.05972; 9.67722 (Unterwerk Gemünden)
Genshagener Heide 52°20′05″N 13°16′38″E / 52.33472°N 13.27722°E / 52.33472; 13.27722 (Unterwerk Genshager Heide)
Gleidingen 52°16′01″N 9°50′06″E / 52.26694°N 9.83500°E / 52.26694; 9.83500 (Unterwerk Gleidingen)
Golm 52°24′10″N 12°58′08″E / 52.40278°N 12.96889°E / 52.40278; 12.96889 (Unterwerk Golm)
Gössnitz (old) 50°52′36″N 12°25′10″E / 50.87667°N 12.41944°E / 50.87667; 12.41944 (Unterwerk Gössnitz)
Gössnitz (neu) 50°54′07″N 12°25′59″E / 50.90194°N 12.43306°E / 50.90194; 12.43306 (Unterwerk Gössnitz)
Grafing 48°02′53″N 11°56′12″E / 48.04806°N 11.93667°E / 48.04806; 11.93667 (Unterwerk Gössnitz)
Grönhart 48°59′29″N 10°55′48″E / 48.99139°N 10.93000°E / 48.99139; 10.93000 (Unterwerk Grafing)
Grossheringen 51°06′22″N 11°39′19″E / 51.10611°N 11.65528°E / 51.10611; 11.65528 (Unterwerk Grossheringen)
Grosskorbetha 51°15′12″N 12°01′14″E / 51.25333°N 12.02056°E / 51.25333; 12.02056 (Unterwerk Grosskorbetha)
Grünauer Kreuz ( switching post) 52°25′31″N 13°33′42″E / 52.42528°N 13.56167°E / 52.42528; 13.56167 (Unterwerk Grünauer Kreuz ( switching post))
Güsen 52°20′07″N 11°58′42″E / 52.33528°N 11.97833°E / 52.33528; 11.97833 (Unterwerk Gütha)
Hagen 51°24′32″N 7°27′43″E / 51.40889°N 7.46194°E / 51.40889; 7.46194 (Unterwerk Hagen)
Hahn (planned) 53°17′42″N 8°09′52″E / 53.29500°N 8.16444°E / 53.29500; 8.16444 (Unterwerk Hahn (planned))
Halbe (fed from 15 kV line from Neuhof) 52°07′00″N 13°41′31″E / 52.11667°N 13.69194°E / 52.11667; 13.69194 (Unterwerk Halbe)
Haltingen 47°36′19″N 7°36′40″E / 47.60528°N 7.61111°E / 47.60528; 7.61111 (Unterwerk Haltingen)
Hamburg-Harburg ( part of converter) 53°26′57″N 10°00′02″E / 53.44917°N 10.00056°E / 53.44917; 10.00056 (Unterwerk Hamburg-Harburg ( part of converter))
Hameln 52°08′26″N 9°26′43″E / 52.14056°N 9.44528°E / 52.14056; 9.44528 (Unterwerk Hameln)
Haren 52°47′02″N 7°18′04″E / 52.78389°N 7.30111°E / 52.78389; 7.30111 (Unterwerk Haren)
Heeren 52°34′28″N 11°52′05″E / 52.57444°N 11.86806°E / 52.57444; 11.86806 (Unterwerk Heeren)
Herbolzheim 48°13′58″N 7°46′09″E / 48.23278°N 7.76917°E / 48.23278; 7.76917 (Unterwerk Herbolzheim)
Herchen 50°46′11″N 7°31′19″E / 50.76972°N 7.52194°E / 50.76972; 7.52194 (Unterwerk Herchen)
Hessental 49°05′58″N 9°46′36″E / 49.09944°N 9.77667°E / 49.09944; 9.77667 (Unterwerk Hessental)
Höchst 50°06′12″N 8°33′28″E / 50.10333°N 8.55778°E / 50.10333; 8.55778 (Unterwerk Höchst)
Holzkirchen 47°53′0″N 11°41′56″E / 47.88333°N 11.69889°E / 47.88333; 11.69889 (Unterwerk Holzkirchen)
Ihringshausen 51°21′07″N 9°32′14″E / 51.35194°N 9.53722°E / 51.35194; 9.53722 (Unterwerk Ihringshausen)
Ilmenau-Wolfsberg (planned) 50°41′17″N 10°59′54″E / 50.68806°N 10.99833°E / 50.68806; 10.99833 (Unterwerk Ilmenau-Wolfsberg (planned))
Ingolstadt 48°46′48″N 11°25′34″E / 48.78000°N 11.42611°E / 48.78000; 11.42611 (Unterwerk Ingolstadt)
Jübek ( part of converter) 54°33′25″N 9°24′35″E / 54.55694°N 9.40972°E / 54.55694; 9.40972 (Unterwerk Jübek ( part of converter))
Kaiserslautern 49°26′16″N 7°42′19″E / 49.43778°N 7.70528°E / 49.43778; 7.70528 (Unterwerk Kaiserslautern)
Karow 52°36′29″N 13°27′30″E / 52.60806°N 13.45833°E / 52.60806; 13.45833 (Unterwerk Karow)
Karthaus 49°42′28″N 6°35′28″E / 49.70778°N 6.59111°E / 49.70778; 6.59111 (Unterwerk Karthaus)
Kirchheim 50°52′40″N 9°35′13″E / 50.87778°N 9.58694°E / 50.87778; 9.58694 (Unterwerk Kirchheim)
Kirchmöser 52°22′55″N 12°24′36″E / 52.38194°N 12.41000°E / 52.38194; 12.41000 (Unterwerk Kirchmöser)
Klebitz 51°56′32″N 12°50′12″E / 51.94222°N 12.83667°E / 51.94222; 12.83667 (Unterwerk Klebitz)
Koblenz 50°23′12″N 7°33′52″E / 50.38667°N 7.56444°E / 50.38667; 7.56444 (Unterwerk Koblenz)
Köln ( part of converter) 50°54′14″N 7°02′55″E / 50.90389°N 7.04861°E / 50.90389; 7.04861 (Unterwerk Köln ( part of converter))
Köln-Mülheim 50°58′21″N 7°01′07″E / 50.97250°N 7.01861°E / 50.97250; 7.01861 (Unterwerk Köln-Mülheim)
Körle 51°10′51″N 9°31′48″E / 51.18083°N 9.53000°E / 51.18083; 9.53000 (Unterwerk Körle)
Kreiensen 51°50′54″N 9°58′11″E / 51.84833°N 9.96972°E / 51.84833; 9.96972 (Unterwerk Kreiensen)
Kyhna 51°30′42″N 12°16′50″E / 51.51167°N 12.28056°E / 51.51167; 12.28056 (Unterwerk Kyhna)
Landshut 48°32′48″N 12°06′31″E / 48.54667°N 12.10861°E / 48.54667; 12.10861 (Unterwerk Landshut)
Leer 53°12′48″N 7°27′53″E / 53.21333°N 7.46472°E / 53.21333; 7.46472 (Unterwerk Leer)
Lehrte ( part of converter) 52°22′54″N 9°57′20″E / 52.38167°N 9.95556°E / 52.38167; 9.95556 (Unterwerk Lehrte ( part of converter))
Leipzig-Wahren 51°22′55″N 12°18′47″E / 51.38194°N 12.31306°E / 51.38194; 12.31306 (Unterwerk Leipzig-Wahren)
Leonberg 48°47′35″N 8°58′28″E / 48.79306°N 8.97444°E / 48.79306; 8.97444 (Unterwerk Aalen)
Limburg 50°22′45″N 8°05′59″E / 50.37917°N 8.09972°E / 50.37917; 8.09972 (Unterwerk Limburg)
Löhne 52°11′42″N 8°42′35″E / 52.19500°N 8.70972°E / 52.19500; 8.70972 (Unterwerk Löhne)
Lüneburg 53°16′01″N 10°24′42″E / 53.26694°N 10.41167°E / 53.26694; 10.41167 (Unterwerk Lüneburg)
Magdeburg 52°09′12″N 11°39′35″E / 52.15333°N 11.65972°E / 52.15333; 11.65972 (Unterwerk Magdeburg)
Mainbernheim 49°42′0″N 10°12′39″E / 49.70000°N 10.21083°E / 49.70000; 10.21083 (Unterwerk Mainbernheim)
Mannheim 49°26′27″N 8°33′43″E / 49.44083°N 8.56194°E / 49.44083; 8.56194 (Unterwerk Mannheim)
Markt Bibart 49°38′48″N 10°25′24″E / 49.64667°N 10.42333°E / 49.64667; 10.42333 (Unterwerk Markt Bibart)
Markt Schwaben 48°11′06″N 11°50′59″E / 48.18500°N 11.84972°E / 48.18500; 11.84972 (Unterwerk Markt Schwaben)
Marl ( part of converter) 51°39′42″N 7°10′45″E / 51.66167°N 7.17917°E / 51.66167; 7.17917 (Unterwerk Marl ( part of converter))
Meckesheim 49°19′45″N 8°48′19″E / 49.32917°N 8.80528°E / 49.32917; 8.80528 (Unterwerk Meckesheim)
Mehrhoog 51°44′55″N 6°29′57″E / 51.74861°N 6.49917°E / 51.74861; 6.49917 (Unterwerk Mehrhoog)
Montabaur 50°26′43″N 7°49′13″E / 50.44528°N 7.82028°E / 50.44528; 7.82028 (Unterwerk Montabeur)
Mörlach 49°11′57″N 11°14′24″E / 49.19917°N 11.24000°E / 49.19917; 11.24000 (Unterwerk Mörlach)
Mottgers 50°16′43″N 9°39′21″E / 50.27861°N 9.65583°E / 50.27861; 9.65583 (Unterwerk Mottgers)
Mühlacker 48°57′06″N 8°50′15″E / 48.95167°N 8.83750°E / 48.95167; 8.83750 (Unterwerk Mühlacker)
Mühlanger 51°51′02″N 12°45′54″E / 51.85056°N 12.76500°E / 51.85056; 12.76500 (Unterwerk Mühlanger)
Muldenstein 51°39′31″N 12°21′01″E / 51.65861°N 12.35028°E / 51.65861; 12.35028 (Unterwerk Muldenstein)
Müllheim 47°48′20″N 7°35′44″E / 47.80556°N 7.59556°E / 47.80556; 7.59556 (Unterwerk Müllheim)
München-Freimann 48°11′56″N 11°36′30″E / 48.19889°N 11.60833°E / 48.19889; 11.60833 (Unterwerk München-Freimann)
München-Ost 48°08′13″N 11°39′02″E / 48.13694°N 11.65056°E / 48.13694; 11.65056 (Unterwerk München-Ost)
Münster 51°55′25″N 7°38′05″E / 51.92361°N 7.63472°E / 51.92361; 7.63472 (Unterwerk Münster)
Murnau 47°41′19″N 11°11′33″E / 47.68861°N 11.19250°E / 47.68861; 11.19250 (Unterwerk Murnau)
Nannhofen 48°12′58″N 11°11′20″E / 48.21611°N 11.18889°E / 48.21611; 11.18889 (Unterwerk Nannhofen)
Neckarelz 49°20′21″N 9°07′0″E / 49.33917°N 9.11667°E / 49.33917; 9.11667 (Unterwerk Neckarelz)
Neumarkt (Oberpfalz) 49°16′06″N 11°27′45″E / 49.26833°N 11.46250°E / 49.26833; 11.46250 (Unterwerk Neumarkt)
Neudittendorf 50°54′29″N 10°53′38″E / 50.90806°N 10.89389°E / 50.90806; 10.89389 (Unterwerk Neudittendorf)
Neuhof 52°08′03″N 13°28′49″E / 52.13417°N 13.48028°E / 52.13417; 13.48028 (Unterwerk Neuhof)
Neumünster 54°06′33″N 9°56′49″E / 54.10917°N 9.94694°E / 54.10917; 9.94694 (Unterwerk Neumünster)
Neu-Ulm ( part of converter) 48°23′52″N 10°01′18″E / 48.39778°N 10.02167°E / 48.39778; 10.02167 (Unterwerk Neu-Ulm ( part of converter))
Niedernhausen 50°09′24″N 8°19′09″E / 50.15667°N 8.31917°E / 50.15667; 8.31917 (Unterwerk Niedernhausen)
Niemberg 51°33′33″N 12°06′10″E / 51.55917°N 12.10278°E / 51.55917; 12.10278 (Unterwerk Niemberg)
Nörten-Hardenberg 51°38′21″N 9°56′12″E / 51.63917°N 9.93667°E / 51.63917; 9.93667 (Unterwerk Nörten-Hardenberg)
Nürnberg ( part of converter) 49°25′22″N 11°00′30″E / 49.42278°N 11.00833°E / 49.42278; 11.00833 (Nürnberg ( part of converter))
Nürnberg-Stein ( part of converter) 49°25′47″N 11°00′19″E / 49.42972°N 11.00528°E / 49.42972; 11.00528 (Nürnberg-Stein ( part of converter))
Oberacker 49°05′23″N 8°43′55″E / 49.08972°N 8.73194°E / 49.08972; 8.73194 (Unterwerk Oberacker)
Oberdachstetten 49°25′03″N 10°25′31″E / 49.41750°N 10.42528°E / 49.41750; 10.42528 (Unterwerk Oberdachstetten)
Oelde 51°49′31″N 8°07′27″E / 51.82528°N 8.12417°E / 51.82528; 8.12417 (Unterwerk Oelde)
Offenbach am Main 50°06′13″N 8°47′17″E / 50.10361°N 8.78806°E / 50.10361; 8.78806 (Unterwerk Offenbach (Main))
Offenburg 48°27′30″N 7°55′10″E / 48.45833°N 7.91944°E / 48.45833; 7.91944 (Unterwerk Offenburg)
Orscheid 50°39′18″N 7°19′24″E / 50.65500°N 7.32333°E / 50.65500; 7.32333 (Unterwerk Orscheid)
Osnabrück 52°15′56″N 8°07′04″E / 52.26556°N 8.11778°E / 52.26556; 8.11778 (Unterwerk Osnabrück)
Plattling 48°46′49″N 12°51′08″E / 48.78028°N 12.85222°E / 48.78028; 12.85222 (Unterwerk Plattling)
Plochingen 48°43′08″N 9°23′31″E / 48.71889°N 9.39194°E / 48.71889; 9.39194 (Unterwerk Plochingen)
Pretzier 52°49′48″N 11°16′49″E / 52.83000°N 11.28028°E / 52.83000; 11.28028 (Unterwerk Pretzier)
Pulling 48°22′12″N 11°42′50″E / 48.37000°N 11.71389°E / 48.37000; 11.71389 (Unterwerk Pulling)
Rathenow 52°35′26″N 12°16′39″E / 52.59056°N 12.27750°E / 52.59056; 12.27750 (Unterwerk Rathenow)
Remagen 50°34′06″N 7°14′35″E / 50.56833°N 7.24306°E / 50.56833; 7.24306 (Unterwerk Remagen)
Rethen 52°17′29″N 9°48′47″E / 52.29139°N 9.81306°E / 52.29139; 9.81306 (Unterwerk Rethen)
Riesa 51°18′41″N 13°16′0″E / 51.31139°N 13.26667°E / 51.31139; 13.26667 (Unterwerk Riesa)
Ritterhude 53°11′37″N 8°45′47″E / 53.19361°N 8.76306°E / 53.19361; 8.76306 (Unterwerk Ritterhude)
Rödelheim 50°08′29″N 8°35′49″E / 50.14139°N 8.59694°E / 50.14139; 8.59694 (Unterwerk Rödelheim)
Rohrbach 49°58′59″N 9°42′12″E / 49.98306°N 9.70333°E / 49.98306; 9.70333 (Unterwerk Rohrbach)
Röhrmoos 48°19′24″N 11°26′49″E / 48.32333°N 11.44694°E / 48.32333; 11.44694 (Unterwerk Rohrbach)
Rosenheim 47°50′44″N 12°07′58″E / 47.84556°N 12.13278°E / 47.84556; 12.13278 (Unterwerk Rosenheim)
Rotenburg ( new) 53°06′28″N 9°21′06″E / 53.10778°N 9.35167°E / 53.10778; 9.35167 (Unterwerk Rotenburg ( new))
Rotenburg ( old) 53°06′26″N 9°21′17″E / 53.10722°N 9.35472°E / 53.10722; 9.35472 (Unterwerk Rotenburg ( old))
Roth (planned) 50°22′57″N 11°02′13″E / 50.38250°N 11.03694°E / 50.38250; 11.03694 (Unterwerk Roth (planned))
Rottweil 48°07′56″N 8°39′18″E / 48.13222°N 8.65500°E / 48.13222; 8.65500 (Unterwerk Rottweil)
Rudersdorf 50°50′04″N 8°8′58″E / 50.83444°N 8.14944°E / 50.83444; 8.14944 (Unterwerk Rudersdorf)
Saalfeld 50°38′42″N 11°22′35″E / 50.64500°N 11.37639°E / 50.64500; 11.37639 (Unterwerk Saalfeld)
Saarbrücken ( part of converter) 49°14′38″N 6°58′40″E / 49.24389°N 6.97778°E / 49.24389; 6.97778 (Unterwerk Saarbrücken ( part of converter))
Salzbergen 52°19′42″N 7°20′39″E / 52.32833°N 7.34417°E / 52.32833; 7.34417 (Unterwerk Salzbergen)
Saubachtal (planned) 51°12′20″N 11°32′33″E / 51.20556°N 11.54250°E / 51.20556; 11.54250 (Unterwerk Saubachtal (planned))
Siegburg 50°47′23″N 7°12′30″E / 50.78972°N 7.20833°E / 50.78972; 7.20833 (Unterwerk Siegburg)
Sindorf 50°53′34″N 6°39′14″E / 50.89278°N 6.65389°E / 50.89278; 6.65389 (Unterwerk Sindorf)
Singen 47°45′29″N 8°52′54″E / 47.75806°N 8.88167°E / 47.75806; 8.88167 (Unterwerk Singen)
Solpke 52°30′02″N 11°17′43″E / 52.50056°N 11.29528°E / 52.50056; 11.29528 (Unterwerk Solpke)
Sommerau 48°07′39″N 8°18′41″E / 48.12750°N 8.31139°E / 48.12750; 8.31139 (Unterwerk Sommerau)
Steinbach am Wald 50°26′10″N 11°22′51″E / 50.43611°N 11.38083°E / 50.43611; 11.38083 (Unterwerk Steinbach am Wald)
Stetzsch 51°04′35″N 13°39′36″E / 51.07639°N 13.66000°E / 51.07639; 13.66000 (Unterwerk Stetzsch)
Stolberg 50°47′29″N 6°12′06″E / 50.79139°N 6.20167°E / 50.79139; 6.20167 (Unterwerk Stolberg)
Stuttgart-Rohr 48°42′50″N 9°06′35″E / 48.71389°N 9.10972°E / 48.71389; 9.10972 (Unterwerk Stuttgart-Rohr)
Stuttgart-Zazenhausen 48°50′40″N 9°11′03″E / 48.84444°N 9.18417°E / 48.84444; 9.18417 (Unterwerk Stuttgart-Zazenhausen)
Traunstein 47°52′06″N 12°37′42″E / 47.86833°N 12.62833°E / 47.86833; 12.62833 (Unterwerk Traunstein)
Uelzen 52°57′50″N 10°32′37″E / 52.96389°N 10.54361°E / 52.96389; 10.54361 (Unterwerk Uelzen)
Urbach 50°33′15″N 7°34′26″E / 50.55417°N 7.57389°E / 50.55417; 7.57389 (Unterwerk Urbach)
Vaihingen / Enz 48°56′35″N 8°57′58″E / 48.94306°N 8.96611°E / 48.94306; 8.96611 (Unterwerk Vaihingen/ Enz)
Wächtersbach 50°14′44″N 9°17′18″E / 50.24556°N 9.28833°E / 50.24556; 9.28833 (Unterwerk Wächtersbach)
Waiblingen 48°49′31″N 9°17′51″E / 48.82528°N 9.29750°E / 48.82528; 9.29750 (Unterwerk Waiblingen)
Waigolshausen 49°58′01″N 10°06′59″E / 49.96694°N 10.11639°E / 49.96694; 10.11639 (Unterwerk Waigolshausen)
Warburg 51°29′50″N 9°08′58″E / 51.49722°N 9.14944°E / 51.49722; 9.14944 (Unterwerk Warburg)
Weimar ( part of converter) 50°59′27″N 11°20′34″E / 50.99083°N 11.34278°E / 50.99083; 11.34278 (Unterwerk Weimar ( part of converter))
Weiterstadt 49°54′38″N 8°34′29″E / 49.91056°N 8.57472°E / 49.91056; 8.57472 (Unterwerk Weiterstadt)
Werdau 50°43′11″N 12°22′11″E / 50.71972°N 12.36972°E / 50.71972; 12.36972 (Unterwerk Werdau)
Wickrath 51°07′15″N 6°23′44″E / 51.12083°N 6.39556°E / 51.12083; 6.39556 (Unterwerk Wickrath)
Wiesbaden 50°01′52″N 8°15′59″E / 50.03111°N 8.26639°E / 50.03111; 8.26639 (Unterwerk Wiesbaden)
Wiesental 49°13′19″N 8°29′48″E / 49.22194°N 8.49667°E / 49.22194; 8.49667 (Unterwerk Wiesenthal)
Wolfratshausen 47°54′30″N 11°25′32″E / 47.90833°N 11.42556°E / 47.90833; 11.42556 (Unterwerk Wolfratshausen)
Wörsdorf 50°14′09″N 8°14′51″E / 50.23583°N 8.24750°E / 50.23583; 8.24750 (Unterwerk Wörsdorf)
Wunstorf 52°24′56″N 9°28′58″E / 52.41556°N 9.48278°E / 52.41556; 9.48278 (Unterwerk Wunstdorf)
Würzburg 49°48′06″N 9°53′52″E / 49.80167°N 9.89778°E / 49.80167; 9.89778 (Unterwerk Würzburg)
Wurzen 51°21′47″N 12°44′45″E / 51.36306°N 12.74583°E / 51.36306; 12.74583 (Unterwerk Wurzen)
Wustermark 52°32′26″N 12°58′25″E / 52.54056°N 12.97361°E / 52.54056; 12.97361 (Unterwerk Wustermark)
Zapfendorf (shut down) 50°01′33″N 10°56′29″E / 50.02583°N 10.94139°E / 50.02583; 10.94139 (Unterwerk Zapfendorf)

Switching stations[edit]

Stations for connecting/isolating parts of the system.

Facility Coordinates
Gabelbach 48°22′49″N 10°33′32″E / 48.38028°N 10.55889°E / 48.38028; 10.55889 (Schaltwerk Gabelbach)
Kirchhellen 51°37′56″N 6°57′9″E / 51.63222°N 6.95250°E / 51.63222; 6.95250 (Schaltwerk Kirchhellen)
Neckarwestheim 49°2′34″N 9°12′6″E / 49.04278°N 9.20167°E / 49.04278; 9.20167 (Schaltwerk Neckarwestheim)
Nenndorf 53°22′35″N 9°54′13″E / 53.37639°N 9.90361°E / 53.37639; 9.90361 (Schaltwerk Nenndorf)
Nitzahn 52°27′35″N 12°20′45″E / 52.45972°N 12.34583°E / 52.45972; 12.34583 (Schaltwerk Nitzahn)
Schönarts 49°57′46″N 9°49′08″E / 49.96278°N 9.81889°E / 49.96278; 9.81889 (Schaltwerk Schönarts)

Central converter plants[edit]

In these facilities the AC from the public grid is transformed and converted into the single phase AC and fed into the railway current distribution grid. At some facilities, power is also fed to the overhead line. Conversion is done by rotary converters or electronic inverters.

Facility Year of commissioning Power Technology Coordinates
Aschaffenburg 2010 60 MW GTO-Thyristor 49°59′08″N 9°05′33″E / 49.98556°N 9.09250°E / 49.98556; 9.09250 (Umformerwerk Borken)
Borken 1963 50 MW Rotary converter 51°3′7″N 9°17′01″E / 51.05194°N 9.28361°E / 51.05194; 9.28361 (Umformerwerk Borken)
Bremen 100 MW GTO-thyristor 53°7′49″N 8°40′49″E / 53.13028°N 8.68028°E / 53.13028; 8.68028 (Umformerwerk Bremen)
Chemnitz 1965 Rotary converter 50°51′42″N 12°56′18″E / 50.86167°N 12.93833°E / 50.86167; 12.93833 (Umformerwerk Chemnitz)
Dresden 1977 Rotary converter 50°59′40″N 13°50′6″E / 50.99444°N 13.83500°E / 50.99444; 13.83500 (Umformerwerk Dresden)
Düsseldorf 30 MW GTO-thyristor 51°13′18″N 6°50′11″E / 51.22167°N 6.83639°E / 51.22167; 6.83639 (Umrichterwerk Düsseldorf)
Hamburg-Harburg Rotary converter 53°26′55″N 10°0′6″E / 53.44861°N 10.00167°E / 53.44861; 10.00167 (Umformerwerk Harburg)
Jübek 14 MW GTO-thyristor 54°33′25″N 9°24′34″E / 54.55694°N 9.40944°E / 54.55694; 9.40944 (Umformerwerk Jübek)
Karlsfeld 100 MW GTO-thyristor 48°12′57″N 11°26′06″E / 48.21583°N 11.43500°E / 48.21583; 11.43500 (Umrichterwerk Karlsfeld)
Karlsruhe 1957 53 MW Rotary converter 48°58′49″N 8°22′34″E / 48.98028°N 8.37611°E / 48.98028; 8.37611 (Umformerwerk Karlsruhe)
Köln 1957 75 MW Rotary converter 50°54′14″N 7°2′55″E / 50.90389°N 7.04861°E / 50.90389; 7.04861 (Umformerwerk Köln)
Lehrte 1963 (rotary converter)/ 2010 (inverter) 37 MW (rotary converter)/ 64 MW (inverter) Rotary converter/ inverter 52°22′54″N 9°57′15″E / 52.38167°N 9.95417°E / 52.38167; 9.95417 (Umformerwerk Lehrte)
Limburg 120 MW IGCT inverter 50°24′20″N 8°3′58″E / 50.40556°N 8.06611°E / 50.40556; 8.06611 (Umformerwerk Limburg)
Marl 1963 25 MW Rotary converter 51°39′40″N 7°10′47″E / 51.66111°N 7.17972°E / 51.66111; 7.17972 (Umformerwerk Marl)
Neckarwestheim 1989 140 MW Rotary converter 49°2′22″N 9°10′40″E / 49.03944°N 9.17778°E / 49.03944; 9.17778 (Umformerwerk Neckarwestheim)
Neckarwestheim II 2011 140 MW GTO-thyristor 48°2′16″N 9°10′40″E / 48.03778°N 9.17778°E / 48.03778; 9.17778 (Umrichterwerk Karlsfeld)
Neu-Ulm Rotary converter 48°23′51″N 10°1′16″E / 48.39750°N 10.02111°E / 48.39750; 10.02111 (Umformerwerk Neu-Ulm)
Nürnberg 1939 34 Rotary converter 49°25′48″N 11°0′18″E / 49.43000°N 11.00500°E / 49.43000; 11.00500 (Umformerwerk Nürnberg)
Nürnberg 2012 75 IGBT-Inverter 49°25′48″N 11°0′18″E / 49.43000°N 11.00500°E / 49.43000; 11.00500 (Umrichterwerk Nürnberg)
Pforzheim (shut down) [1] Rotary converter
Saarbrücken Rotary converter 49°14′37″N 6°58′35″E / 49.24361°N 6.97639°E / 49.24361; 6.97639 (Umformerwerk Saarbrücken)
Singen (shut down in 2002) Rotary converter 47°45′29″N 8°52′54″E / 47.75806°N 8.88167°E / 47.75806; 8.88167 (Umformerwerk Singen)
Thyrow 2004/2005 8×15 = 120 MW GTO-thyristor 52°14′0″N 13°18′10″E / 52.23333°N 13.30278°E / 52.23333; 13.30278 (Umrichterwerk Thyrow)
Weimar 1973 Rotary converter 50°59′27″N 11°20′34″E / 50.99083°N 11.34278°E / 50.99083; 11.34278 (Umformerwerk Weimar)

Local converter plants[edit]

In these facilities the AC from the public grid is transformed and converted into the single phase AC and fed to the overhead line. Conversion is done by rotary converters or electronic inverters.

Facility Year of commissioning Power Technology Coordinates
Adamsdorf 1984 Rotary converter 53°24′31″N 13°2′43″E / 53.40861°N 13.04528°E / 53.40861; 13.04528 (Umformerwerk Adamsdorf)
Anklam Rotary converter 53°50′46″N 13°43′0″E / 53.84611°N 13.71667°E / 53.84611; 13.71667 (Umformerwerk Anklam)
Berlin-Rummelsburg 1984 Rotary converter 52°29′12″N 13°30′33″E / 52.48667°N 13.50917°E / 52.48667; 13.50917 (Umformerwerk Berlin-Rummelsburg)
Bützow (demolished) Rotary converter 53°49′30″N 11°59′3″E / 53.82500°N 11.98417°E / 53.82500; 11.98417 (Umformerwerk Bützow)
Cottbus 1989 Rotary converter 51°45′0″N 14°17′12″E / 51.75000°N 14.28667°E / 51.75000; 14.28667 (Umformerwerk Cottbus)
Doberlug-Kirchhain 1981 (Rotary converter), 2008 (Inverter) Inverter 51°38′49″N 13°34′51″E / 51.64694°N 13.58083°E / 51.64694; 13.58083 (Umformerwerk Doberlug-Kirchhain)
Eberswalde 1987 Rotary converter 52°50′40″N 13°48′1″E / 52.84444°N 13.80028°E / 52.84444; 13.80028 (Umformerwerk Eberswalde)
Falkenberg 1987 Rotary converter 51°34′50″N 13°15′26″E / 51.58056°N 13.25722°E / 51.58056; 13.25722 (Umformerwerk Falkenberg)
Oder Rotary converter 52°21′17″N 14°28′42″E / 52.35472°N 14.47833°E / 52.35472; 14.47833 (Umformerwerk Frankfurt)
Lalendorf Rotary converter 53°45′15″N 12°23′54″E / 53.75417°N 12.39833°E / 53.75417; 12.39833 (Umformerwerk Lalendorf)
Löwenberger Land Rotary converter 52°54′5″N 13°11′18″E / 52.90139°N 13.18833°E / 52.90139; 13.18833 (Umformerwerk Löwenberger Land)
Ludwigsfelde 1981 Rotary converter 52°18′17″N 13°16′31″E / 52.30472°N 13.27528°E / 52.30472; 13.27528 (Umformerwerk Ludwigsfelde)
Lübeck-Genin 2008 Inverter  ?
Magdeburg (shut down) 1974 Rotary converter 52°9′14″N 11°39′40″E / 52.15389°N 11.66111°E / 52.15389; 11.66111 (Umformerwerk Magdeburg)
Neustadt (Dosse) Rotary converter 52°50′51″N 12°27′24″E / 52.84750°N 12.45667°E / 52.84750; 12.45667 (Umformerwerk Neustadt)
Oberröblingen Rotary converter 51°26′42″N 11°17′44″E / 51.44500°N 11.29556°E / 51.44500; 11.29556 (Umformerwerk Oberröblingen)
Prenzlau Rotary converter 53°19′59″N 13°52′21″E / 53.33306°N 13.87250°E / 53.33306; 13.87250 (Umformerwerk Prenzlau)
Rosslau Rotary converter 51°53′51″N 12°14′29″E / 51.89750°N 12.24139°E / 51.89750; 12.24139 (Umformerwerk Rosslau)
Rostock 1985 Rotary converter 54°3′54″N 12°8′39″E / 54.06500°N 12.14417°E / 54.06500; 12.14417 (Umformerwerk Rostock)
Schwerin 1987 Rotary converter 53°35′39″N 11°23′11″E / 53.59417°N 11.38639°E / 53.59417; 11.38639 (Umformerwerk Schwerin)
Senftenberg 1988 Rotary converter 51°31′58″N 14°1′14″E / 51.53278°N 14.02056°E / 51.53278; 14.02056 (Umformerwerk Senftenberg)
Stendal Rotary converter 52°35′0″N 11°52′7″E / 52.58333°N 11.86861°E / 52.58333; 11.86861 (Umformerwerk Stendal)
Stralsund Rotary converter 54°17′9″N 13°5′23″E / 54.28583°N 13.08972°E / 54.28583; 13.08972 (Umformerwerk Stralsund)
Wittenberg 1978 Rotary converter 51°52′30″N 12°41′20″E / 51.87500°N 12.68889°E / 51.87500; 12.68889 (Umformerwerk Wittenberg)
Wittenberge 1987 Rotary converter 52°59′46″N 11°46′8″E / 52.99611°N 11.76889°E / 52.99611; 11.76889 (Umformerwerk Wittenberge)
Wolkramshausen Inverter 51°26′19″N 10°44′8″E / 51.43861°N 10.73556°E / 51.43861; 10.73556 (Umformerwerk Wolkramshausen)
Wünsdorf 1982 Rotary converter 52°10′24″N 13°27′42″E / 52.17333°N 13.46167°E / 52.17333; 13.46167 (Umformerwerk Wünsdorf)
Wustermark Rotary converter 52°32′33″N 12°58′25″E / 52.54250°N 12.97361°E / 52.54250; 12.97361 (Umformerwerk Wustermark)

Power plants[edit]

Facility Year of commissioning Power Type State Coordinates
Bad Abbach 2000 3.5 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°56′47″N 12°00′47″E / 48.94639°N 12.01306°E / 48.94639; 12.01306 (Bad Abbach Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Aufkirchen Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°18′19″N 11°51′29″E / 48.30528°N 11.85806°E / 48.30528; 11.85806 (Aufkirchen Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Bad Reichenhall 1912 7.2 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 47°43′4″N 12°51′47″E / 47.71778°N 12.86306°E / 47.71778; 12.86306 (Bad Reichenhall Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Bergheim 1970 23.7 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°45′2″N 11°16′23″E / 48.75056°N 11.27306°E / 48.75056; 11.27306 (Bergheim Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Bertoldsheim 1967 18.9 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°44′8″N 11°1′14″E / 48.73556°N 11.02056°E / 48.73556; 11.02056 (Bertoldsheim Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Bittenbrunn 1969 20.2 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°44′4″N 11°8′37″E / 48.73444°N 11.14361°E / 48.73444; 11.14361 (Bittenbrunn Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Datteln Coal-fired power plant North Rhine-Westphalia 51°37′43″N 7°19′50″E / 51.62861°N 7.33056°E / 51.62861; 7.33056 (Datteln Power Plant)
Eitting Hydroelectric Power Plant Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°21′31″N 11°52′56″E / 48.35861°N 11.88222°E / 48.35861; 11.88222 (Eitting Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Ingolstadt 1971 19.8 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°45′1″N 11°24′43″E / 48.75028°N 11.41194°E / 48.75028; 11.41194 (Ingolstadt Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Kammerl 1905 Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 47°39′42″N 10°59′12″E / 47.66167°N 10.98667°E / 47.66167; 10.98667 (Kammerl Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Kirchmöser 160 MW Gas turbine power plant Brandenburg 52°23′39″N 12°25′5″E / 52.39417°N 12.41806°E / 52.39417; 12.41806 (Kirchmöser Power Plant)
Langenprozelten 1976 160 MW Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 50°3′11″N 9°34′52″E / 50.05306°N 9.58111°E / 50.05306; 9.58111 (Langenprozelten Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Lausward 1957 520 MW Gas turbine power plant North Rhine-Westphalia 51°13′16″N 6°43′58″E / 51.22111°N 6.73278°E / 51.22111; 6.73278 (Lausward Power Plant)
Lünen 1984 110 MW Coal-fired power plant North Rhine-Westphalia 51°36′59″N 7°28′44″E / 51.61639°N 7.47889°E / 51.61639; 7.47889 (Lünen Power Plant)
Mannheim 1955 190 MW Coal-fired power plant Baden-Württemberg 49°26′45″N 8°29′27″E / 49.44583°N 8.49083°E / 49.44583; 8.49083 (Mannheim Power Plant)
Muldenstein (retired) 1912 11.3 MW Coal-fired power plant Saxony-Anhalt 51°39′25″N 12°20′59″E / 51.65694°N 12.34972°E / 51.65694; 12.34972 (Muldenstein Rail Traction Power Plant)
Mittelsbüren 110 MW Coal-fired power plant Bremen 53°7′43″N 8°41′7″E / 53.12861°N 8.68528°E / 53.12861; 8.68528 (Mittelsbüren Power Plant)
Neckarwestheim I 1976 190 MW Nuclear power plant Baden-Württemberg 49°2′25″N 9°10′18″E / 49.04028°N 9.17167°E / 49.04028; 9.17167 (Neckarwestheim Nuclear Power Plant, Unit I)
Pfrombach Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°26′28″N 11°59′34″E / 48.44111°N 11.99278°E / 48.44111; 11.99278 (Phrombach Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Vohburg Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 48°46′40″N 11°36′4″E / 48.77778°N 11.60111°E / 48.77778; 11.60111 (Vohburg Hydroelectric Power Plant)
Walchensee 1924 Hydroelectric power plant Bavaria 47°37′48″N 11°20′17″E / 47.63000°N 11.33806°E / 47.63000; 11.33806 (Walchensee Hydroelectric Power Plant)

Border-crossing power lines[edit]

Germany – Austria[edit]

Line Coordinates
Walchenseekraftwerk – Zirl 47°23′55″N 11°15′53″E / 47.39861°N 11.26472°E / 47.39861; 11.26472 (Bahnstromleitung Walchenseekraftwerk - Zirl quert Staatsgrenze zwischen Bayern und Österreich)
Traunstein – Steinsdorf 47°53′20″N 12°58′25″E / 47.88889°N 12.97361°E / 47.88889; 12.97361 (Bahnstromleitung Traunstein - Steinsdorf quert Staatsgrenze zwischen Bayern und Österreich)

Former border between West and East Germany[edit]

Line Coordinates
Lehrte – Heeren 52°24′48″N 10°59′34″E / 52.41333°N 10.99278°E / 52.41333; 10.99278 (Bahnstromleitung Lehrte - Heeren überquert einstige innerdeutsche Grenze)
Bebra – Weimar 51°00′29″N 10°12′13″E / 51.00806°N 10.20361°E / 51.00806; 10.20361 (Bahnstromleitung Bebra - Weimar überquert einstige innerdeutsche Grenze)
Steinfeld am Wald – Saalfeld 50°27′52″N 11°25′07″E / 50.46444°N 11.41861°E / 50.46444; 11.41861 (Bahnstromleitung Steinbach am Wald - Saalfeld überquert einstige innerdeutsche Grenze)

Switzerland[edit]

Substations[edit]

In these facilities electricity is transformed down from 132 kV or 66 kV to 15 kV. There is no conversion or generation of power.

Facility Coordinates
Balerna 45°50′52″N 9°00′11″E / 45.84778°N 9.00306°E / 45.84778; 9.00306 (Unterwerk Balerna)
Biel 47°7′48″N 7°15′26″E / 47.13000°N 7.25722°E / 47.13000; 7.25722 (Unterwerk Biel)
Brugg 47°28′28″N 8°12′16″E / 47.47444°N 8.20444°E / 47.47444; 8.20444 (Unterwerk Brugg)
Burgdorf 47°03′44″N 7°36′41″E / 47.06222°N 7.61139°E / 47.06222; 7.61139 (Unterwerk Burgdorf)
Bussigny 46°32′38″N 6°33′36″E / 46.54389°N 6.56000°E / 46.54389; 6.56000 (Sous-station de Bussigny)
Chur 46°52′24″N 9°31′57″E / 46.87333°N 9.53250°E / 46.87333; 9.53250 (Unterwerk Chur)
Croy 46°42′00″N 6°28′33″E / 46.70000°N 6.47583°E / 46.70000; 6.47583 (Unterwerk Croy)
Courtemaîche 47°27′21″N 7°3′20″E / 47.45583°N 7.05556°E / 47.45583; 7.05556 (Sous-station de Courtemaiche)
Delémont 47°21′49″N 7°21′30″E / 47.36361°N 7.35833°E / 47.36361; 7.35833 (Sous-station de Delemont)
Eglisau 47°34′22″N 8°30′50″E / 47.57278°N 8.51389°E / 47.57278; 8.51389 (Unterwerk Eglisau)
Emmenbrücke 47°4′4″N 8°17′9″E / 47.06778°N 8.28583°E / 47.06778; 8.28583 (Unterwerk Emmenbrücke)
Etzwilen 47°39′42″N 8°49′7″E / 47.66167°N 8.81861°E / 47.66167; 8.81861 (Unterwerk Etzwilen)
Farsch 46°49′25″N 9°23′59″E / 46.82361°N 9.39972°E / 46.82361; 9.39972 (Unterwerk Farsch)
Filisur (RhB) 46°40′19″N 9°41′36″E / 46.67194°N 9.69333°E / 46.67194; 9.69333 (Unterwerk Filsur)
Flüelen 46°53′43″N 8°37′29″E / 46.89528°N 8.62472°E / 46.89528; 8.62472 (Unterwerk Flüelen)
Fribourg 46°48′50″N 7°9′15″E / 46.81389°N 7.15417°E / 46.81389; 7.15417 (Sous-station de Fribourg)
Frutigen 46°34′48″N 7°38′56″E / 46.58000°N 7.64889°E / 46.58000; 7.64889 (Unterwerk Frutigen)
Gampel 46°18′28″N 7°45′24″E / 46.30778°N 7.75667°E / 46.30778; 7.75667 (Unterwerk Gampel)
Genève-Tuleries 46°14′59″N 6°8′48″E / 46.24972°N 6.14667°E / 46.24972; 6.14667 (Sous-station de Genève-Tuleries)
Giornico 46°24′5″N 8°52′23″E / 46.40139°N 8.87306°E / 46.40139; 8.87306 (Sottostazione di Giornico)
Gland 46°24′52″N 6°15′48″E / 46.41444°N 6.26333°E / 46.41444; 6.26333 (Sous-station de Gland)
Hendschiken 47°23′29″N 8°12′16″E / 47.39139°N 8.20444°E / 47.39139; 8.20444 (Unterwerk Hendschiken)
Kandersteg 46°30′10″N 7°40′28″E / 46.50278°N 7.67444°E / 46.50278; 7.67444 (Unterwerk Kandersteg)
Küblis (RhB) 46°54′56″N 9°45′33″E / 46.91556°N 9.75917°E / 46.91556; 9.75917 (Unterwerk Küblis)
Melide 45°57′59″N 8°56′54″E / 45.96639°N 8.94833°E / 45.96639; 8.94833 (Sottostazione di Melide)
Muttenz 47°32′5″N 7°38′38″E / 47.53472°N 7.64389°E / 47.53472; 7.64389 (Unterwerk Muttenz)
Neuchâtel 46°59′25″N 6°54′56″E / 46.99028°N 6.91556°E / 46.99028; 6.91556 (Sous-station de Neuchâtel)
Killwangen 47°26′13″N 8°20′38″E / 47.43694°N 8.34389°E / 47.43694; 8.34389 (Unterwerk Killwangen)
Olten 47°21′40″N 7°55′20″E / 47.36111°N 7.92222°E / 47.36111; 7.92222 (Unterwek Olten)
Puidoux 46°29′21″N 6°45′41″E / 46.48917°N 6.76139°E / 46.48917; 6.76139 (Sous-station de Puidoux)
Rapperswil SG 47°13′29″N 8°49′55″E / 47.22472°N 8.83194°E / 47.22472; 8.83194 (Unterwerk Rapperswil)
Rivera 46°7′32″N 8°55′27″E / 46.12556°N 8.92417°E / 46.12556; 8.92417 (Sottostazione della Rivera)
Roche 46°21′52″N 6°55′28″E / 46.36444°N 6.92444°E / 46.36444; 6.92444 (Sous-station de Roche)
Romont FR 46°41′4″N 6°54′23″E / 46.68444°N 6.90639°E / 46.68444; 6.90639 (Sous-station de Romont)
Rotkreuz 47°8′42″N 8°26′27″E / 47.14500°N 8.44083°E / 47.14500; 8.44083 (Unterwerk Rotkreuz)
Sagliains (RhB) 46°45′44″N 10°05′39″E / 46.76222°N 10.09417°E / 46.76222; 10.09417 (Unterwerk Sagliains)
Saint Léonard 46°15′8″N 7°25′21″E / 46.25222°N 7.42250°E / 46.25222; 7.42250 (Sous-station de Saint Léonard)
Sankt Margrethen 47°27′12″N 9°38′22″E / 47.45333°N 9.63944°E / 47.45333; 9.63944 (Unterwerk Sankt Margrethen)
Sargans 47°2′26″N 9°27′8″E / 47.04056°N 9.45222°E / 47.04056; 9.45222 (Unterwerk Sargans)
Seebach 47°25′20″N 8°33′17″E / 47.42222°N 8.55472°E / 47.42222; 8.55472 (Unterwerk Seebach)
Selfranga 46°51′20″N 9°53′03″E / 46.85556°N 9.88417°E / 46.85556; 9.88417 (Unterwerk Selfranga)
Sihlbrugg 47°14′34″N 8°34′37″E / 47.24278°N 8.57694°E / 47.24278; 8.57694 (Unterwerk Sihlbrugg)
Sils (RhB) 46°42′8″N 9°28′8″E / 46.70222°N 9.46889°E / 46.70222; 9.46889 (Unterwerk Sils)
Stein AG 47°32′29″N 7°57′59″E / 47.54139°N 7.96639°E / 47.54139; 7.96639 (Unterwerk Stein)
Steinen 47°2′53″N 8°36′17″E / 47.04806°N 8.60472°E / 47.04806; 8.60472 (Unterwerk Steinen)
Tavanasa (RhB) 46°45′09″N 9°02′42″E / 46.75250°N 9.04500°E / 46.75250; 9.04500 (Unterwerk Tavanasa)
Thun 46°46′20″N 7°35′53″E / 46.77222°N 7.59806°E / 46.77222; 7.59806 (Unterwerk Thun)
Wanzwil 47°11′49″N 7°41′40″E / 47.19694°N 7.69444°E / 47.19694; 7.69444 (Unterwerk Wanzwil)
Wetzikon ZH 47°18′35″N 8°47′56″E / 47.30972°N 8.79889°E / 47.30972; 8.79889 (Unterwerk Wetzikon)
Winterthur-Grüze 47°30′0″N 8°45′4″E / 47.50000°N 8.75111°E / 47.50000; 8.75111 (Unterwerk Winterthur-Grüze)
Yverdon 46°46′03″N 6°38′51″E / 46.76750°N 6.64750°E / 46.76750; 6.64750 (Sous-station d'Yverdon)
Ziegelbrücke 47°7′59″N 9°3′55″E / 47.13306°N 9.06528°E / 47.13306; 9.06528 (Unterwerk Ziegelbrücke)
Zürich 47°22′52″N 8°31′19″E / 47.38111°N 8.52194°E / 47.38111; 8.52194 (Unterwerk Zürich)

Central converter plants[edit]

In these facilities the AC from public grid is transformed and converted into the single phase AC and fed into the railway current distribution grid. At some facilities, power is also fed to the overhead line. Conversion is done by rotary converters or electronic inverters.

Facility Year of commissioning Power Technology used Coordinates
Bever (RhB) Rotary converter 46°32′52″N 9°53′17″E / 46.54778°N 9.88806°E / 46.54778; 9.88806 (Umformerwerk Bevers)
Landquart (RhB) Rotary converter 46°58′28″N 9°33′6″E / 46.97444°N 9.55167°E / 46.97444; 9.55167 (Umformerwerk Landquart)
Giubiasco Rotary converter 46°10′32″N 9°0′9″E / 46.17556°N 9.00250°E / 46.17556; 9.00250 (Umformerwerk Giubiasco)
Kerzers Rotary converter 46°58′27″N 7°11′25″E / 46.97417°N 7.19028°E / 46.97417; 7.19028 (Umformerwerk Kerzers)
Massaboden Rotary converter 46°19′55″N 8°0′42″E / 46.33194°N 8.01167°E / 46.33194; 8.01167 (Umformerwerk Massaboden)
Rupperswil Rotary converter 47°24′21″N 8°6′19″E / 47.40583°N 8.10528°E / 47.40583; 8.10528 (Umformerwerk Ruppers)
Seebach Rotary converter 47°25′20″N 8°33′17″E / 47.42222°N 8.55472°E / 47.42222; 8.55472 (Umformerwerk Seebach)
Wimmis Rotary converter 46°40′51″N 7°39′23″E / 46.68083°N 7.65639°E / 46.68083; 7.65639 (Umformerwerk Wimmis)

Switching stations[edit]

Stations for connecting/isolating parts of the system.

Facility Coordinates
Zollikofen 47°0′45″N 7°27′53″E / 47.01250°N 7.46472°E / 47.01250; 7.46472 (Schaltwerk Zollikofen)

Power plants[edit]

Facility Year of commissioning Power Type Coordinates
Amsteg 1922 55 MW Hydroelectric power plant 46°46′4″N 8°40′18″E / 46.76778°N 8.67167°E / 46.76778; 8.67167 (Kraftwerk Amsteg)
Le Châtelard VS Hydroelectric power plant 46°3′41″N 6°57′29″E / 46.06139°N 6.95806°E / 46.06139; 6.95806 (Kraftwerk Châtelard)
Etzelwerk Hydroelectric power plant 47°11′42″N 8°48′42″E / 47.19500°N 8.81167°E / 47.19500; 8.81167 (Etzelwerk)
Göschenen Hydroelectric power plant 46°40′2″N 8°35′3″E / 46.66722°N 8.58417°E / 46.66722; 8.58417 (Kraftwerk Göschenen)
Klosters Hydroelectric power plant 46°51′39″N 9°53′44″E / 46.86083°N 9.89556°E / 46.86083; 9.89556 (Kraftwerk Klosters)
Gösgen 51,3 MW Hydroelectric power plant 47°22′8″N 7°58′47″E / 47.36889°N 7.97972°E / 47.36889; 7.97972 (Kraftwerk Gösgen)
Lungerersee 1994 9 MW Hydroelectric Power Plant 46°49′20.51″N 8°10′25.52″E / 46.8223639°N 8.1737556°E / 46.8223639; 8.1737556 (Kraftwerk Lungerersee)
Massaboden 1916 7,2 MW Hydroelectric power plant 46°19′55″N 8°0′42″E / 46.33194°N 8.01167°E / 46.33194; 8.01167 (Kraftwerk Massaboden)
Mühleberg 1921 45 MW Hydroelectric power plant 46°58′9″N 7°17′4″E / 46.96917°N 7.28444°E / 46.96917; 7.28444 (Kraftwerk Mühleberg)
Ritom 1920 Hydroelectric power plant 46°31′2″N 8°40′33″E / 46.51722°N 8.67583°E / 46.51722; 8.67583 (Kraftwerk Ritom)
Rupperswil 1945 Hydroelectric power plant 47°24′42″N 8°6′52″E / 47.41167°N 8.11444°E / 47.41167; 8.11444 (Kraftwerk Rupperswil)
Vernayaz Hydroelectric power plant 46°8′3″N 7°2′10″E / 46.13417°N 7.03611°E / 46.13417; 7.03611 (Kraftwerk Vernayez)
Wassen Hydroelectric power plant 46°42′56″N 8°36′36″E / 46.71556°N 8.61000°E / 46.71556; 8.61000 (Kraftwerk Wassen)

Border-crossing power lines[edit]

Germany–Switzerland[edit]

Line Coordinates
Holdingen – Muttenz 47°34′53″N 07°36′14″E / 47.58139°N 7.60389°E / 47.58139; 7.60389 (Bahnstromleitung Muttenz-Holdingen quert Staatsgrenze zwischen Deutschland und der Schweiz)
Singen – Etzwilen 47°42′49″N 08°49′52″E / 47.71361°N 8.83111°E / 47.71361; 8.83111 (Bahnstromleitung Singen-Etzwilen quert Staatsgrenze zwischen Deutschland und der Schweiz)

Austria[edit]

Substations[edit]

In these facilities electricity is transformed down from 110 kV to 15 kV. No conversion or generation of power takes place.

Facility Coordinates
Absdorf 48°23′52″N 15°59′38″E / 48.39778°N 15.99389°E / 48.39778; 15.99389 (Unterwerk Absdorf)
Angern 48°22′56″N 16°49′19″E / 48.38222°N 16.82194°E / 48.38222; 16.82194 (Unterwerk Angern)
Amstetten (Österreich) 48°7′9″N 14°53′7″E / 48.11917°N 14.88528°E / 48.11917; 14.88528 (Unterwerk Amstetten (Österreich))
Asten 48°14′2″N 14°24′20″E / 48.23389°N 14.40556°E / 48.23389; 14.40556 (Unterwerk Asten)
Attnang-Puchheim 48°1′8″N 13°43′38″E / 48.01889°N 13.72722°E / 48.01889; 13.72722 (Unterwerk Attnang-Puchheim)
Bad Vöslau 47°58′06″N 16°13′28″E / 47.96833°N 16.22444°E / 47.96833; 16.22444 (Bad Vöslau)
Bludenz 47°8′41″N 9°49′44″E / 47.14472°N 9.82889°E / 47.14472; 9.82889 (Unterwerk Bludenz)
Bruck Mur 47°25′42″N 15°16′26″E / 47.42833°N 15.27389°E / 47.42833; 15.27389 (Unterwerk Bruck Mur)
Dölsach 46°48′53″N 12°49′55″E / 46.81472°N 12.83194°E / 46.81472; 12.83194 (Unterwerk Dölsach)
Dorfgastein 47°14′5″N 13°6′17″E / 47.23472°N 13.10472°E / 47.23472; 13.10472 (Unterwerk Dorfgastein)
Elsbethen 47°45′9″N 13°5′4″E / 47.75250°N 13.08444°E / 47.75250; 13.08444 (Unterwerk Elsbethen)
Feldkirch 47°15′8″N 9°37′4″E / 47.25222°N 9.61778°E / 47.25222; 9.61778 (Unterwerk Feldkirch)
Florisdorf 48°15′42″N 16°24′19″E / 48.26167°N 16.40528°E / 48.26167; 16.40528 (Unterwerk Florisdorf)
Fritzens-Wattens 47°18′6″N 11°35′48″E / 47.30167°N 11.59667°E / 47.30167; 11.59667 (Unterwerk Fritzens-Wattens)
Gaisbach Wartberg 48°19′51″N 14°29′52″E / 48.33083°N 14.49778°E / 48.33083; 14.49778 (Unterwerk Gaisbach Wartberg)
Golling-Abtenau 47°35′53″N 13°9′53″E / 47.59806°N 13.16472°E / 47.59806; 13.16472 (Unterwerk Golling-Abtenau)
Göpfritz 48°43′48″N 15°23′29″E / 48.73000°N 15.39139°E / 48.73000; 15.39139 (Unterwerk Göpfritz)
Gries am Brenner 47°2′36″N 11°29′9″E / 47.04333°N 11.48583°E / 47.04333; 11.48583 (Unterwerk Gries am Brenner)
Götzendorf 48°1′34″N 16°34′59″E / 48.02611°N 16.58306°E / 48.02611; 16.58306 (Unterwerk Götzendorf)
Graz 47°04′40″N 15°24′48″E / 47.07778°N 15.41333°E / 47.07778; 15.41333 (Unterwerk Graz)
Haag 48°05′33″N 14°35′36″E / 48.09250°N 14.59333°E / 48.09250; 14.59333 (Unterwerk Haag)
Hohenau
Hütteldorf 48°11′43″N 16°16′17″E / 48.19528°N 16.27139°E / 48.19528; 16.27139 (Unterwerk Hütteldorf)
Kitzbühel 47°28′52″N 12°22′59″E / 47.48111°N 12.38306°E / 47.48111; 12.38306 (Unterwerk Kitzbühel)
Küpfern 47°51′9″N 14°37′3″E / 47.85250°N 14.61750°E / 47.85250; 14.61750 (Unterwerk Küpfern)
Landeck 47°9′8″N 10°35′11″E / 47.15222°N 10.58639°E / 47.15222; 10.58639 (Unterwerk Landeck)
Mallnitz 46°58′40″N 13°10′44″E / 46.97778°N 13.17889°E / 46.97778; 13.17889 (Unterwerk Mallnitz)
Marchtrenk 48°12′11″N 14°6′11″E / 48.20306°N 14.10306°E / 48.20306; 14.10306 (Unterwerk Marchtrenk)
Mariahof 47°06′16″N 14°22′28″E / 47.10444°N 14.37444°E / 47.10444; 14.37444 (Unterwerk Mariahof)
Matrei 47°7′38″N 11°27′11″E / 47.12722°N 11.45306°E / 47.12722; 11.45306 (Unterwerk Matrei)
Meidling 48°10′30″N 16°20′29″E / 48.17500°N 16.34139°E / 48.17500; 16.34139 (Unterwerk Meidling)
Mistelbach 48°33′51″N 16°33′33″E / 48.56417°N 16.55917°E / 48.56417; 16.55917 (Unterwerk Mistelbach)
Münster
Parndorf 47°59′45″N 16°50′33″E / 47.99583°N 16.84250°E / 47.99583; 16.84250 (Unterwerk Parndorf)
Pettneu 47°08′55″N 10°21′46″E / 47.14861°N 10.36278°E / 47.14861; 10.36278 (Unterwerk Pettneu)
Pusarnitz 46°50′5″N 13°24′17″E / 46.83472°N 13.40472°E / 46.83472; 13.40472 (Unterwerk Pusarnitz)
Riedau 48°18′31″N 13°37′37″E / 48.30861°N 13.62694°E / 48.30861; 13.62694 (Unterwerk Riedau)
Rohr 48°11′15″N 15°25′47″E / 48.18750°N 15.42972°E / 48.18750; 15.42972 (Unterwerk Rohr)
Sankt Johann im Pongau 47°20′10″N 13°11′23″E / 47.33611°N 13.18972°E / 47.33611; 13.18972 (Unterwerk Sankt Johann im Pongau)
Sankt Pölten 48°13′55″N 15°39′19″E / 48.23194°N 15.65528°E / 48.23194; 15.65528 (Unterwerk Sankt Pölten)
Sankt Veit 46°45′39″N 14°22′28″E / 46.76083°N 14.37444°E / 46.76083; 14.37444 (Unterwerk Sankt Veit)
Schladming 47°23′38″N 13°40′43″E / 47.39389°N 13.67861°E / 47.39389; 13.67861 (Unterwerk Schladming)
Schlöglmühl 47°40′57″N 15°54′46″E / 47.68250°N 15.91278°E / 47.68250; 15.91278 (Unterwerk Schlöglmühl)
Semmering 47°37′36″N 15°48′53″E / 47.62667°N 15.81472°E / 47.62667; 15.81472 (Unterwerk Semmering)
Wien-Simmering 48°09′05″N 16°25′37″E / 48.15139°N 16.42694°E / 48.15139; 16.42694 (Unterwerk Wien-Simmering)
Steindorf 47°58′0″N 13°14′24″E / 47.96667°N 13.24000°E / 47.96667; 13.24000 (Unterwerk Steindorf)
Tulln 48°19′24″N 16°2′37″E / 48.32333°N 16.04361°E / 48.32333; 16.04361 (Unterwerk Tulln)
Unterberg 47°12′50″N 11°23′32″E / 47.21389°N 11.39222°E / 47.21389; 11.39222 (Unterwerk Unterberg)
Villach 46°35′42″N 13°49′55″E / 46.59500°N 13.83194°E / 46.59500; 13.83194 (Unterwerk Villach)
Wald am Schoberpass 47°27′5″N 14°40′7″E / 47.45139°N 14.66861°E / 47.45139; 14.66861 (Unterwerk Wald am Schoberpass)
Wartberg an der Krems 47°59′21″N 14°7′18″E / 47.98917°N 14.12167°E / 47.98917; 14.12167 (Unterwerk Wartberg an der Krems)
Wegscheid 48°14′16″N 14°16′3″E / 48.23778°N 14.26750°E / 48.23778; 14.26750 (Unterwerk Wegscheid)
Wiener Neustadt 47°47′54″N 16°13′13″E / 47.79833°N 16.22028°E / 47.79833; 16.22028 (Unterwerk Wiener Neustadt)
Wörgl 47°29′58″N 12°4′19″E / 47.49944°N 12.07194°E / 47.49944; 12.07194 (Unterwerk Wörgl)
Zellerndorf 48°41′31″N 15°58′9″E / 48.69194°N 15.96917°E / 48.69194; 15.96917 (Unterwerk Zellerndorf)
Zirl (old) 47°15′53″N 11°13′59″E / 47.26472°N 11.23306°E / 47.26472; 11.23306 (Unterwerk Zirl (old))
Zirl (neu) 47°15′55″N 11°13′18″E / 47.26528°N 11.22167°E / 47.26528; 11.22167 (Unterwerk Zirl (neu))

Central converter plants[edit]

In these facilities the AC from the public grid is transformed and converted into the single phase AC and fed into the railway current distribution grid. At some facilities, power is also fed to the overhead line. Conversion is done by rotary converters or electronic inverters.

Facility Year of commissioning Power Coordinates
Auhof 1956 90 MW 48°12′00″N 16°14′12″E / 48.20000°N 16.23667°E / 48.20000; 16.23667 (Bahnstromumformerwerk Auhof)
Bergern 1983 48°13′3″N 15°16′17″E / 48.21750°N 15.27139°E / 48.21750; 15.27139 (Bahnstromumformerwerk Bergern)
Haiming 1995 47°14′47″N 10°52′27″E / 47.24639°N 10.87417°E / 47.24639; 10.87417 (Bahnstromumformerwerk Haining)
Kledering 1989 48°8′21″N 16°25′56″E / 48.13917°N 16.43222°E / 48.13917; 16.43222 (Bahnstromumformerwerk Kledering)
Sankt Michael 1975 47°21′27″N 15°0′9″E / 47.35750°N 15.00250°E / 47.35750; 15.00250 (Bahnstromumformerwerk Sankt Michael)

Power plants[edit]

Facility Year of commissioning Power Type Coordinates
Annabrücke 20 MW Hydroelectric power plant 46°33′39″N 14°28′46″E / 46.56083°N 14.47944°E / 46.56083; 14.47944 (Kraftwerk Annabrücke)
Braz 1954 20 MW Hydroelectric power plant 47°8′0″N 9°56′45″E / 47.13333°N 9.94583°E / 47.13333; 9.94583 (Kraftwerk Braz)
Enzigerboden 20 MW Hydroelectric power plant 47°10′10″N 12°37′36″E / 47.16944°N 12.62667°E / 47.16944; 12.62667 (Kraftwerk Enzigerboden)
Fulpmes 1983 15 MW Hydroelectric power plant 47°9′30″N 11°21′29″E / 47.15833°N 11.35806°E / 47.15833; 11.35806 (Kraftwerk Fulpmes)
Obervellach Hydroelectric power plant 46°56′13″N 13°11′29″E / 46.93694°N 13.19139°E / 46.93694; 13.19139 (Kraftwerk Obervellach)
Schaltposten Schönberg Hydroelectric power plant 47°12′02″N 11°23′29″E / 47.20056°N 11.39139°E / 47.20056; 11.39139 (Rützkraftwerk)
Sankt Pantaleon Hydroelectric power plant 48°13′29″N 14°31′50″E / 48.22472°N 14.53056°E / 48.22472; 14.53056 (Kraftwerk Sankt Pantaleon)
Schneiderau Hydroelectric power plant 47°11′50″N 12°36′28″E / 47.19722°N 12.60778°E / 47.19722; 12.60778 (Kraftwerk Schneiderau)
Spullersee 1925 36 MW Hydroelectric power plant 47°7′58″N 10°3′16″E / 47.13278°N 10.05444°E / 47.13278; 10.05444 (Kraftwerk Spullersee)
Steeg 1910 Hydroelectric power plant (only direct fed of overhead wire) 47°36′29″N 13°37′57″E / 47.60806°N 13.63250°E / 47.60806; 13.63250 (Kraftwerk Steeg)
Uttendorf Hydroelectric power plant 47°15′43″N 12°34′3″E / 47.26194°N 12.56750°E / 47.26194; 12.56750 (Kraftwerk Uttendorf)
Weyer Hydroelectric power plant 47°51′07″N 14°38′19″E / 47.85194°N 14.63861°E / 47.85194; 14.63861 (Kraftwerk Weyer)

Norway[edit]

In Norway all electric railways use 15 kV 1623 Hz AC (except the Thamshavnbanen museum railway which uses 6.6 kV 25 Hz AC). The Oslo T-bane and tramways use 750V DC power.

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden most electric railways use 15 kV 1623 Hz AC. Exceptions include: Saltsjöbanan and Roslagsbanan (1.5kV DC), the Stockholm Metro (650V and 750V DC) and tramways (750V DC). The Oresund Bridge linking Sweden and Denmark is electrified at 25 kV, Danish standard; the split is located on the Swedish side near the bridge. Only two-system trains (or diesel trains; rare) can pass the point.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bahnstromsystem (German) railway electrification systems
  2. ^ C. Linder (2002), "Umstellung der Sollfrequenz im zentralen Bahnstromnetz von 16⅔ Hz auf 16,70 Hz (English: Switching the frequency in train electric power supply network from 16 2/3 Hz to 16,70 Hz)" (in German), Elektrische Bahnen (Munich: Oldenbourg-Industrieverlag) Book 12, ISSN 0013-5437

External links[edit]