1605 Nankai earthquake

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1605 Nankai earthquake
1605 Nankai earthquake is located in Japan
1605 Nankai earthquake
Date 3 February 1605 (1605-02-03)
Magnitude 7.9 Ms
Epicenter 33°30′N 138°30′E / 33.5°N 138.5°E / 33.5; 138.5Coordinates: 33°30′N 138°30′E / 33.5°N 138.5°E / 33.5; 138.5[1]
Countries or regions Japan: Chūbu region, Kansai region, Shikoku, Kyushu
Tsunami yes
Casualties thousands

The 1605 Nankai earthquake occurred at about 20:00 local time on 3 February. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.9 on the surface wave magnitude scale and triggered a devastating tsunami that resulted in thousands of deaths in the Nankai and Tōkai regions of Japan. It is uncertain whether there were two separate earthquakes separated by a short time interval or a single event. It is referred to as a tsunami earthquake, in that the size of the tsunami greatly exceeds that expected from the magnitude of the earthquake.[2]

Background[edit]

The southern coast of Honshu runs parallel to the Nankai Trough, which marks the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. Movement on this convergent plate boundary leads to many earthquakes, some of them of megathrust type. The Nankai megathrust has five distinct segments (A-E) that can rupture independently,[2][3] the segments have ruptured either singly or together repeatedly over the last 1,300 years.[4] Megathrust earthquakes on this structure tend to occur in pairs, with a relatively short time gap between them although in the 1707 Hōei earthquake all segments are thought to have ruptured at once.[5] In 1854 there were two earthquakes a day apart and there were similar earthquakes in 1944 and 1946. In each case, the northeastern segment ruptured before the southwestern segment.[6] In the 1605 event, there is evidence for two distinct earthquakes,[7] but they are not distinguished by all historical sources and some seismologists suggest that only the Nankai segment of the megathrust ruptured.[4]

Earthquake[edit]

There are very few reports of shaking associated with this earthquake, with most historical records only mentioning the tsunami. This has led seismologists to interpret this as a 'tsunami earthquake',[2] probably involving a slow rupture velocity causing little observed shaking while generating a large tsunami.[8]

Tsunami[edit]

The records of this tsunami are quite sparse but the maximum wave heights are larger than those for either the 1707 Hōei or 1854 Ansei Nankai tsunamis in areas on the south coast of Shikoku where they can be compared.[9] The regional extent of this tsunami is supported by the discovery of tsunami deposits on the northeastern part of the Kii Peninsula and at Lake Hamana correlated to this event.[10][11] Victims of the tsunami were also reported from Kyushu.[12]

Damage[edit]

There is no reported damage associated with the earthquake itself. At least 700 houses were washed away at Hiro[13] in present-day Wakayama prefecture and 80 at Arai in what is now Shizuoka prefecture. Castles were reported destroyed or damaged at Tahara on the Atsumi Peninsula; the main keep of Kakegawa Castle was also destroyed.[14] The total number of casualties is uncertain as records are incomplete and contradictory,[9] but estimates are in the order of thousands.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b IISEE. "IISEE Catalogue Search parameters page". Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Ishibashi, K. (2004). "Status of historical seismology in Japan". Annals of Geophysics 47 (2/3): 339–368. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  3. ^ Ando, M. (1975). "Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the nankai trough, Japan". Tectonophysics 27 (2): 119–140. Bibcode:1975Tectp..27..119A. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(75)90102-X. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Sieh, K.E. (1981). A Review of Geological Evidence for Recurrence Times of Large Earthquakes. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  5. ^ Tsuji, Y.; Namegaya Y. (2007). "The 1707 Hoei Earthquake, as an Example of a combined Gigantic Tokai-Nankai Earthquake". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K. Araki, E. Matsumoto, H. Nakamura, T. Kamiya, S. Hori, T. & Baba, T. (2007). "Precise real-time observatory and simulating phenomena of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai Trough – Towards the understanding of mega thrust earthquakes". Underwater Technology and Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies, 2007. Symposium on: 299–300. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  7. ^ NGDC. "Significant Earthquake Search for Japan 1605". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  8. ^ Kanamori, H. (1972). "Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes". Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 6: 346–359. doi:10.1016/0031-9201(72)90058-1. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Murakami, H.; Itoh, S.; Hiraiwa, Y.; Shimada, T. (1995). "Re-examination of historical tsunamis in Shikoku Island, Japan". In Tsuchiya Y. & Shutō N. Tsunami: progress in prediction, disaster prevention, and warning. Advances in natural and technological hazards research 4. Springer. pp. 199–207. ISBN 978-0-7923-3483-5. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Hisayo, O.; Shusaku Y., Muneki M., Masayuki H., Takashi U., Mieko U. & Tsuyoshi H. (2001). "Tsunami Deposits of Tokai Earthquakes Preserved in a Coastal Marsh Sequence at Osatsu, Toba, Central Japan, and Their Magnetochronological Dates.". Quaternary Research (in Japanese (abstract in English)) (Japan Association for Quaternary Research) 40 (3): 193–202. doi:10.4116/jaqua.40.193. ISSN 0418-2642. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  11. ^ NGDC. "Tsunami deposits". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  12. ^ NGDC. "Tsunami Runup Location Effects". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  13. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the tsunami event". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  14. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the tsunami event". Retrieved 16 July 2011.