1605 in literature
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The year 1605 in literature involved some significant events.
- January 1 – The Queen's Revels Children perform George Chapman's All Fools at the court of King James I of England.
- January 6 – First performance of The Masque of Blackness at the Banqueting Hall, Whitehall Palace. The cast includes Penelope Rich and Lady Mary Wroth.
- January 7 – The King's Men perform Shakespeare's Henry V at court.
- January 8 – Ben Jonson's Every Man Out of His Humour is performed at court by the King's Men.
- January (between the 9th and 14th) – King's Men perform Love's Labor's Lost before Queen Anne.
- January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, Don Quixote (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha"), written in Castilian dialects of Old Spanish and printed by Juan de la Cuesta, is published by publisher-bookseller Francisco de Robles in Madrid; most copies of the first edition are shipped to Spanish America. One of the first significant novels in the western literary tradition, it becomes a global bestseller almost at once and new editions, both authorized and pirated, are produced across the Iberian Peninsula by the end of the year.
- February 2 – The King's Men give a repeat performance of Ben Jonson's Every Man in His Humour at court.
- February 10 and February 12 – Performances of The Merchant of Venice are given at court.
- May 30 – John Spottiswoode becomes a member of the Scottish privy council.
- August 27–August 30 – King James I, Queen Anne, and their son Prince Henry visit the University of Oxford. Gentlemen from St John's and Christ Church colleges entertain the royals with a series of plays. The big hit of the visit is Samuel Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Matthew Gwinne's Latin play Vertumnus puts James to sleep.
- October – First publication of Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien by Johann Carolus in Strasbourg (Holy Roman Empire), generally regarded as the world's first newspaper. De Nieuwe Tijdinghen, a Dutch proto-newspaper, is also published this year.
- Johannes Huser of Waldkirch publishes a collected edition of Paracelsus's works.
- Luis de Góngora is ordained as a priest.
- The Rose theatre in London is abandoned after its lease runs out.
- The Red Bull Theatre is built in Clerkenwell, London.
- Anonymous – Ratsey's Ghost
- Johann Arndt – Vier Bücher vom wahren Christenthum ("Four Books of True Christianity", 1605-1610)
- Francis Bacon – The Advancement of Learning
- Miguel de Cervantes – Don Quixote
- Samuel Daniel – Certain Small Poems
- John Davies of Hereford – Humours Heav'n on Earth
- Pedro de Espinosa – Flores de poetas ilustres (anthology)
- Melchior Goldast – Suevicarum rerum scriptores
- The Fair Maid of Bristow (published)
- The First Part of Hieronimo (published)
- King Leir (published)
- The London Prodigal (published)
- Robert Armin and others – Fool upon Fool (published)
- George Chapman, Ben Jonson and John Marston – Eastward Hoe (performed & published)
- George Chapman – All Fools (published)
- Henry Chettle and Thomas Heywood (?) – The Trial of Chivalry (published)
- Samuel Daniel – The Queen's Arcadia
- Thomas Dekker and John Webster – Northward Ho
- Thomas Heywood – If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody
- Ben Jonson
- John Marston – The Dutch Courtesan published
- Samuel Rowley – When You See Me, You Know Me (published)
- June – Thomas Randolph, poet and dramatist (died 1635)
- July 29 – Simon Dach, poet (died 1659)
- September 12 – William Dugdale, antiquarian author (died 1686)
- October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne, non-fiction author (died 1682)
- November – François Combefis, Dominican patrologist (died 1679)
- date unknown
- probable – Hugh Paulinus de Cressy, church historian (died 1674)
- March 26 – Jakob Ayrer, dramatist(born c.1543)
- April 6 – John Stow, historian (born c.1525)
- May – Edward Lively, linguist (born 1545)
- September 9 – Heinrich Khunrath, philosopher (born c.1560)
- September 23 – Pontus de Tyard, poet (born c1521)
- October 13 – Theodore Beza, Protestant theologian (born 1519)
- date unknown
- probable – Arthur Golding, translator (born c.1536)