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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1590s 1600s 1610s – 1620s – 1630s 1640s 1650s|
|Years:||1620 1621 1622 – 1623 – 1624 1625 1626|
|1623 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2376|
|English Regnal year||20 Ja. 1 – 21 Ja. 1|
— to —癸亥年十一月初十日
|- Vikram Samvat||1679–1680|
|- Shaka Samvat||1545–1546|
|- Kali Yuga||4724–4725|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||623–624|
|Japanese calendar||Genna 9
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||289 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2166|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1623|
- February – France, Savoy, and Venice sign the Treaty of Paris, agreeing to cooperate in removing Spanish forces from the strategic Alpine pass of Valtelline.
- February 25 – Thirty Years' War: Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria becomes Elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate.
- March 5 – The first American temperance law is enacted, in Virginia.
- March 9 – Amboyna massacre: Ten men in the service of the British East India Company, nine Japanese and one Portuguese, are executed by the Dutch East India Company.
- March 20 – Richard Frethorne begins writing a letter to his parents from Jamestown, Virginia.
- April 11 – King Gwanghaegun of Joseon is deposed in a coup. He is succeeded by King Injo.
- April 29 – A fleet of 11 Dutch ships depart for the coast of Peru, seeking to seize Spanish treasure.
- June 14 – The first breach-of-promise lawsuit: Rev. Gerville Pooley, in Virginia, files against Cicely Jordan, but loses.
- June 29 – Première of Pedro Calderón de la Barca's first play, Amor, honor y poder, at the Court of Habsburg Spain.
- July – The ship Anne arrives from England at "New Plymouth" (Plymouth Colony), carrying more settlers, followed a week or two later by the Little James.
- August 6
- Papal Conclave of 1623: Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) succeeds Pope Gregory XV as the 235th pope.
- Thirty Years' War: Chased by the Count of Tilly's army, Christian of Brunswick's army attempts to flee to the Dutch Republic. Tilly's army catches Brunswick five miles from the border. In the resulting Battle of Stadtlohn, Christian's army is destroyed.
- September 10 – Murat IV (1623–1640) succeeds Mustafa I (1622–1623) as Ottoman Emperor.
- November 1 – Fire at Plymouth Colony destroys several buildings.
- November 8 – Publication in London of the "First Folio" (Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies), a collection of 36 of the plays of Shakespeare, half of which have not previously been printed.
Date unknown 
- The Safavids recapture Baghdad.
- England first colonizes Saint Kitts and Nevis.
- Wilhelm Schickard invents his "Calculating Clock", an early mechanical calculator.
- Procopius' long-lost Secret History is rediscovered in the Vatican Library.
- Giambattista Marini publishes his long poem Adone.
- Tommaso Campanella publishes The City of the Sun.
- Johannes Rudbeck founds Rudbeckianska Gymnasiet, the first gymnasium in Sweden.
- The second Thanksgiving is celebrated at Plymouth Plantation.
- Erotomania is first mentioned in a psychiatric treatise.
- On the coast of Massachusetts Bay, the settlement that will become the City of Gloucester, Massachusetts is first inhabited by men from Dorchester, England.
- On the coast of New Hampshire, the settlement of Hilton's Point that will become Dover is established by men from London, England, the first European settlers in the state.
- April 27 – Johann Adam Reinken, German organist (d. 1722)
- April 30 – François de Laval, first bishop of New France (d. 1708)
- May 27 – Sir William Petty, English scientist and philosopher (d. 1687)
- May 30 – John Egerton, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, English politician (d. 1686)
- June 15 – Cornelis de Witt, Dutch politician (d. 1672)
- June 19 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (d. 1662)
- August 5 – (baptism) Antonio Cesti, Italian composer (d. 1669)
- August 23 – Stanisław Lubieniecki, Polish Socinian theologist (d. 1675)
- September 13 – Justinius Praetorius Morozovus, Russian-Chinese writer, mathematician, composer, violinist and philosopher.
- October 17 – Francis Turretin, Swiss theologian (d. 1687)
- date unknown
- January 15 – Paolo Sarpi, theologian (b. 1552)
- February 8 – Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, English politician (b. 1546)
- February – Malcolm Macfie, last chief of the Scottish clan Clan Macfie
- March 7 – Luís Mendes de Vasconcellos, 55th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. c.1542)
- March 25 – Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, duc de Bouillon (b. 1555)
- April 19 – Uesugi Kagekatsu, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1556)
- June 16 – Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, German Protestant military leader (b. 1599)
- July 4 – William Byrd, English composer (b. 1543)
- July 8 – Pope Gregory XV (b. 1554)
- August 6 – Anne Hathaway, Shakespeare's wife
- October 21 – William Wade, English statesman and diplomat (b. 1546)
- November 9 – William Camden, English historian (b. 1551)
- November 11 – Philippe de Mornay, French writer (b. 1549)
- November 12 – Josaphat Kuncevyc, Lithuanian archbishop (b. c. 1582)
- date unknown – Andrea Andreani, Italian engraver (b. 1540)
- Ferrand, Jacques. Maladie d'amour ou Mélancolie érotique.