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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1620s 1630s 1640s – 1650s – 1660s 1670s 1680s|
|Years:||1650 1651 1652 – 1653 – 1654 1655 1656|
|1653 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2406|
|English Regnal year||4 Cha. 2 – 5 Cha. 2
— to —癸巳年十一月十二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1709–1710|
|- Shaka Samvat||1575–1576|
|- Kali Yuga||4754–4755|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||653–654|
|Japanese calendar||Jōō 2
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||259 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2196|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1653|
Year 1653 (MDCLIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar.
- January–June – Swiss peasant war.
- February 2 – New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated.
- February 3 – Cardinal Mazarin returns to Paris from exile.
- March 14 – Battle of Leghorn: A Dutch fleet defeats the English; the Dutch commander, Johan van Galen, later dies of his wounds.
- April 20 – Oliver Cromwell expels the Rump Parliament in England.
- May 24 – Ferdinand IV is elected King of the Romans.
- June 12–13 – First Anglo-Dutch War – Battle of the Gabbard: The English navy defeats the Dutch fleet, which loses 17 ships.
- July 4–December 12 – The Barebones Parliament meets in London.
- July 8 – John Thurloe becomes Cromwell's head of intelligence.
- August 8–10 – Battle of Scheveningen: The final naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War is fought, between the fleets of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces off the Texel; the English navy gains a tactical victory over the Dutch fleet.
- November – John Casor flees Anthony Johnson's farm, sparking the legal basis for slavery in the United States.
- December 16 – Instrument of Government in England: The world's first written constitution, under which Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, being advised by a remodelled English Council of State. This is the start of The First Protectorate, bringing an end to the first period of republican government in the country, the Commonwealth of England.
Date unknown 
- Marcello Malpighi becomes a doctor of medicine.
- Stephen Bachiler returns to England.
- The Taj Mahal mausoleum is completed at Agra.
- Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg reconfirms the nobility's freedom from taxation and its unlimited control over the peasants.
- January 13 – Philipp Jakob Spener, German theologian (d. 1705)
- February 17 – Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer (d. 1713)
- April 2 – Prince George of Denmark, consort of Anne, Queen of Great Britain (d. 1708)
- May 8 – Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars, Marshall of France (d. 1734)
- June 1 – Georg Muffat, French composer (d. 1704)
- June 26 – Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, chief minister of France under Louis XV of France (d. 1743)
- July 5 – Thomas Pitt, British Governor of Madras (d. 1726)
- July 25 – Agostino Steffani, Italian diplomat and composer (d. 1728)
- August 9 – John Oldham, English poet (d. 1683)
- August 14 – Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, English statesman (d. 1688)
- September 3 – Roger North, English lawyer and biographer (d. 1734)
- October 18 – Abraham van Riebeeck, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1713)
- date unknown
- January 16 – John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol, English diplomat (b. 1580)
- February 20 – Luigi Rossi, Italian composer (b. 1597)
- March 23 – Johan van Galen, Dutch naval officer (b. 1604)
- May 26 – Robert Filmer, English writer (b. 1588)
- July 10 – Gabriel Naudé, French librarian and scholar (b. 1600)
- July 31 – Thomas Dudley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony (b. 1576)
- August 10 – Maarten Tromp, Dutch admiral (b. 1598)
- October 3 – Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, Dutch scholar (b. 1612)
- date unknown – Artemisia Gentileschi, Roman artist