1673 in literature
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The year 1673 in literature involved some significant events.
- February 10 - Première of Molière's comédie-ballet The Imaginary Invalid in Paris. During the fourth performance, on February 17, the playwright, playing the title rôle, collapses on stage, dying soon after.
- With the death of Sir Henry Herbert, Thomas Killigrew is appointed Master of the Revels in England.
- In response to events of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, John Dryden's topical play Amboyna, about events in the East Indies, is reportedly "contrived and written in a month" — certainly one of the fastest acts of solo dramatic composition known. The drama is premièred onstage in May.
- Elkanah Settle's tragedy The Empress of Morocco, premièred on July 3 at the Dorset Gardens Theatre in London by the Duke's Company, is published in quarto; in addition to its frontispiece illustration, the quarto contains five woodcuts depicting scenes in the play — the first English play text illustrated in this way. Settle's play also inspires a farce with the same title, probably by Thomas Duffet, performed by the King's Company and published the following year.
- Archpriest Petrovich Avvakum writes his Zhitie (Life) as the first Russian autobiography.
- Antonio Magliabechi is appointed librarian to Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
- Bathsua Makin - An Essay to Revive the Ancient Education of Gentlewomen
- England's appeal from the Private Cabal at Whitehall to the Great Council of the Nation by a true Lover of his Country - pamphlet attributed to Sir William Coventry
- Francis Kirkman - The Unlucky Citizen
- Johannes Schefferus - Lapponia
- Shugi Washo
- Thomas Traherne - Roman Forgeries
- Aphra Behn - The Dutch Lover
- Sir William Davenant - News from Plymouth, The Law Against Lovers, The Fair Favourite, and The Siege published posthumously
- John Dryden
- Amboyna, or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants
- Marriage à la Mode
- Molière - Le malade imaginaire
- Henry Nevil Payne - The Fatal Jealousy
- Edward Ravenscroft - The Careless Lovers
- Elkanah Settle - The Empress of Morocco
- Pedro Calderon de la Barca - La vida es sueño (sacramental play)
- Poems of Mr. John Milton (2nd edition)
- Bernarda Ferreira de la Cerda - España libertada (second part)
- January 1 – Johannes Kelpius, German Pietist writer (died 1708)
- October 26 – Dimitrie Cantemir, Moldavian prince and man of letters (died 1723)
- Unknown dates
- February 17 – Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin), French playwright (born 1622)
- March – Joseph Caryl, English Biblical commentator and preacher (born 1602)
- March 15 – Salvator Rosa, Italian painter and poet (born 1615)
- May 4 – Richard Braithwaite, English poet (born 1588)
- November 16 – Katarina Zrinska, Croatian poet (born c. 1625)
- December – Margaret Cavendish, English writer and scientist (born 1623)
- Unknown date – Ingen (Yinyuan Longqi), Chinese-born Buddhist poet (born 1592)