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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1640s 1650s 1660s – 1670s – 1680s 1690s 1700s|
|Years:||1675 1676 1677 – 1678 – 1679 1680 1681|
|1678 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2431|
|English Regnal year||29 Cha. 2 – 30 Cha. 2
— to —戊午年十一月十八日
|- Vikram Samvat||1734–1735|
|- Shaka Samvat||1600–1601|
|- Kali Yuga||4779–4780|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||678–679|
|Japanese calendar||Enpō 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||234 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2221|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1678|
Year 1678 (MDCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar.
- January 27 – The first fire engine company in what will become the United States goes into service.
- February 18 – John Bunyan publishes his Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress in London.
- May 11 – French admiral Jean d'Estrees runs his whole fleet aground in Curaçao.
- June – French buccaneer Michel de Grammont leads 6 pirate ships and 700 men in a daring raid on Spanish-held Venezuela, reaching inland as far as Trujillo, Venezuela.
- June 25 – Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia becomes the first woman to be awarded a university degree, a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Padua.
- August 10 – The Treaties of Nijmegen end the Franco-Dutch War. The County of Burgundy is ceded to the Kingdom of France.
- September 6 – Titus Oates begins to present allegations of the Popish Plot, a supposed Roman Catholic conspiracy to assassinate king Charles II of England. Oates applies the term Tory to those who disbelieve his allegations.
- October 17 – English magistrate Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey is found murdered in Primrose Hill, London. Titus Oates claims it as a proof of his allegations.
- December 3 – Test Act provides that members of both the House of Lords and House of Commons of England must swear an anti-Catholic oath before taking office.
Date unknown 
- Rebellion breaks out in southern China.
- About 1,200 Irish families sail from Barbados to Virginia and the Carolinas.
- In Ireland, the vacant Bishopric of Leighlin is given to the Bishop of Kildare to form the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kildare and Leighlin.
- The first chrysanthemums are planted in Europe.
- March 4 – Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer (d. 1741)
- March 7 – Filippo Juvara, Italian architect (d. 1736)
- April 14 – Abraham Darby I, one of the fathers of the Industrial Revolution (d. 1717)
- May 16 – Andreas Silbermann, organ builder (d. 1734)
- July 26 – Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1711)
- September 16 – Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher (d. 1751)
- September 29 – Adrien-Maurice, 3rd duc de Noailles, French soldier (d. 1766)
- October 10 – John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Scottish soldier (d. 1743)
- November 26 – Jean Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, French geophysicist (d. 1771)
- December 8 – Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton, English diplomat (d. 1757)
- December 13 – Yongzheng Emperor of China (d. 1735)
- December 14 – Daniel Neal, English historian (d. 1743)
- December 30 – William Croft, English composer (d. 1727)
- date unknown
- January 29 – Jeronimo Lobo, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (b. 1593)
- May 4 or May 14 – Anna Maria van Schurman, Dutch poet and scholar (b. 1607)
- May 18 – Miyamoto Iori, Japanese samurai (b. 1612)
- August 5 – Juan García de Zéspedes, Mexican musician and composer (b. 1619)
- August 16 – Andrew Marvell, English writer (b. 1621)
- August 17 – Guillaume Herincx, Flemish theologian and Bishop of Ypres (b. 1621)
- August 28 – John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, English soldier (b. 1602)
- September 8 – Pietro della Vecchia, Italian painter (b. 1603)
- October 12 – Edmund Berry Godfrey, English magistrate (b. 1621)
- October 18 – Jacob Jordaens, Flemish painter (b. 1593)
- October 19 – Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Dutch painter (b. c. 1627)
- November 1 – William Coddington, first Governor of Rhode Island (b. 1601)