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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1650s 1660s 1670s – 1680s – 1690s 1700s 1710s|
|Years:||1680 1681 1682 – 1683 – 1684 1685 1686|
|1683 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2436|
|English Regnal year||34 Cha. 2 – 35 Cha. 2
— to —癸亥年十一月十四日
|- Vikram Samvat||1739–1740|
|- Shaka Samvat||1605–1606|
|- Kali Yuga||4784–4785|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||683–684|
|Japanese calendar||Tenna 3
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||229 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2226|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1683|
- April 10 – Charles V the Duke of Lorraine is appointed commander of the Imperial army.
- May 3 – Sultan Mehmed IV enters Belgrade.
- June 6 – The Ashmolean Museum opens as the world's first university museum.
- June 12 – The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England is discovered.
- July 8 – The Qing Dynasty Chinese admiral Shi Lang leads 300 ships with 20,000 troops out of Tongshan, Fujian and sails towards the Kingdom of Tungning, in modern-day Taiwan and Penghu, in order to quell the kingdom in the name of Qing.
- July 14 – A 140,000-man Ottoman force arrives at Vienna and starts to besiege the city.
- July 16 and July 17 – Battle of Penghu: Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang defeats the naval forces of Zheng Keshuang in a decisive victory.
- September 5 – The Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang receives the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang, ushering in the collapse of the Kingdom of Tungning, which is then incorporated into the Qing Empire.
- September 12 – Battle of Vienna: The Ottoman siege of the city is broken with the arrival of a force of 70,000 Polish, Austrians and Germans under Polish-Lithuanian king Jan III Sobieski, whose cavalry turns their flank (considered to be the turning point in the Ottoman Empire's fortunes).
- October 3 – Shi Lang reaches Taiwan and occupies present day Kaohsiung.
- October 6 – Germantown, Pennsylvania is founded (in 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares a 300th Year Celebration, and in 1987, it becomes an annual holiday, German-American Day).
- November 1 – The British crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.
- December – The River Thames freezes, allowing a frost fair to be held.
Date unknown 
- Wild boars are hunted to extinction in Britain.
- January 13 – Christoph Graupner, German composer (d. 1760)
- February 28 – René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist (d. 1757)
- March 1 – Caroline of Ansbach, queen of George II of Great Britain (d. 1737); her birthdate was associated with Saint David's Day, for example in plate 4 of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress
- April 3 – Mark Catesby, English naturalist (d. 1749)
- June 23 – Etienne Fourmont, French orientalist (d. 1745)
- September 7 – Maria Anna of Austria, Archduchess of Austria and Queen consort of Portugal (d. 1754)
- September 11 – Farrukhsiyar, Mughal Emperor (d. 1719)
- September 25 – Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer (d. 1764)
- October 17 – Aixin-Jueluo Yuntang, born Aixin-Jueluo Yintang, Qing prince (d. 1726)
- October 25 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (d. 1757)
- November 10 – King George II of Great Britain (d. 1760)
- November 30 – Ludwig Andreas Graf Khevenhüller, Austrian field marshal (d. 1744)
- December 19 – King Philip V of Spain (d. 1746)
- December 27 – Conyers Middleton, English minister (d. 1750)
- January 21 – Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, British politician (b. 1621)
- February 18 – Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem, Dutch painter (b. 1620)
- March 19 – Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist (b. 1612)
- March 29 – Yaoya Oshichi, young Japanese girl burned at the stake for arson (b. 1667)
- July 10 – François-Eudes de Mézeray, French historian (b. 1610)
- July 13 – Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, English statesman (b. 1631)
- July 30 – Queen Marie-Thérèse, first wife of Louis XIV of France (b. 1638)
- August 18 – Charles Hart, English actor (b. 1625)
- August 24 – John Owen, English non-conformist theologian (b. 1616)
- September 6 – Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French minister of finance (b. 1619)
- September 12 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (b. 1643)
- October 25 – William Scroggs, lord chief justice of England (b. c. 1623)
- December 7
- December 15 – Izaak Walton, English writer (b. 1593)