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This article is about the year 1685.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1650s 1660s 1670s – 1680s – 1690s 1700s 1710s|
|Years:||1682 1683 1684 – 1685 – 1686 1687 1688|
|1685 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2438|
|Bahá'í calendar||−159 – −158|
|English Regnal year||36 Cha. 2 – 1 Ja. 2|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4381 or 4321
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4382 or 4322
|- Vikram Samvat||1741–1742|
|- Shaka Samvat||1607–1608|
|- Kali Yuga||4786–4787|
|Japanese calendar||Jōkyō 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||227 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2228|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1685.|
- February 6 – James Stuart, Duke of York becomes James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland in succession to his brother Charles II (1630–1685), King of Great Britain since 1660. James II and VII reigns to 1688.
- February 18 – Fort St. Louis is established by a Frenchman at Matagorda Bay, thus forming the basis for France's claim to Texas.
- February 20 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, intending to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands with 200 surviving colonists at Matagorda Bay on the Texas coast, believing the Mississippi near (Texas Handbook).
- March – Louis XIV of France passes the "Code Noir", allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies.
- May 11 – The Killing Time: Five Covenanters in Wigtown, Scotland, notably Margaret Wilson, are executed for refusing to swear an oath declaring King James of England, Scotland and Ireland as head of the church, becoming the 'Wigtown martyrs'.
- June 11 – Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, lands at Lyme Regis with an invasion force brought from the Netherlands to challenge his uncle, James II, for the Crown of England.
- June 20 – Monmouth Rebellion: James, Duke of Monmouth declares himself at Taunton to be King and heir to his father's Kingdoms as James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland.
- July 6 – Monmouth Rebellion – Battle of Sedgemoor: the armies of King James II of England defeat rebel forces under Monmouth and capture the Duke himself, shortly after the battle.
- July 15 – The Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, London.
- August 25 – The Bloody Assizes begin in Winchester; over 1000 of Monmouth's rebels tried and condemned to death or transportation.
- September – The first organised street lighting was introduced in London with oil lamps to be lit outside every tenth house on moonless winter nights.
- October 18–October 19 – Louis XIV issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and declares Protestantism illegal, thereby depriving Huguenots of civil rights.
- The Chinese army of the Qing Dynasty attacks a Russian post at Albazin, during the reigns of the Kangxi Emperor and the dual Russian rulers Ivan V of Russia and Peter I of Russia. The events lead to the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
- Adam Baldridge finds a pirate base at Île Sainte-Marie in Madagascar.
- January 7 – Jonas Alströmer, Swedish industrialist (d. 1761)
- January 9 – Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch philologist (d. 1766)
- February 8 – Charles-Jean-François Hénault, French historian (d. 1770)
- February 10 – Aaron Hill, English writer (d. 1750)
- February 23 – George Frideric Handel, German composer (d. 1759)
- March 12 – George Berkeley, English philosopher (d. 1753)
- March 18 – Ralph Erskine, Scottish minister (d. 1752)
- March 21 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (d. 1750)
- June 30 – John Gay, English writer (d. 1732)
- July 3 – Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, British cavalry officer (d. 1768)
- August 18 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (d. 1731)
- October 1 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1740)
- October 26 – Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer (d. 1757)
- November 17 – Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye, French-Canadian trader and explorer (d. 1749)
- December 17 – Thomas Tickell, English writer (d. 1740)
- January 2 – Harbottle Grimston, English politician (b. 1603)
- February 6 – King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland (b. 1630)
- February 11 – David Teniers III, Flemish painter (b. 1638)
- February 24 – Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle, English politician and military leader (b. 1629)
- March 22 – Emperor Go-Sai of Japan (b. 1638)
- April – Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter and engraver whose subject matter included tavern scenes, peasants drinking and smoking, itinerant musicians, village festivities and quaint village characters (b. 1610)
- May 11 – Margaret Wilson and Margaret McLachlan, the Wigtown martyrs
- May 26 – Karl II, Elector Palatine (b. 1651)
- July 15 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II of England (beheaded) (b. 1649)
- July 28 – Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, English statesman (b. 1618)
- September 1 – Leoline Jenkins, Welsh lawyer and diplomat (b. 1625)
- October 12 – Christoph Ignaz Abele, Austrian jurist (b. 1628)
- October 30 – Michel le Tellier, French statesman (b. 1603)
- December 12 – John Pell, English mathematician (b. 1610)
- date unknown – Nalan Xingde, Chinese poet who became a scholar and officer in the Imperial Bodyguard (b. 1655)
- "Wigtown Martyrs". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Harris, Tim (2004). "Scott (Crofts), James, duke of Monmouth and first duke of Buccleuch (1649–1685)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24879. Retrieved 2011-10-26. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Roberts, J: History of the World, Penguin, 1994.